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We address shape grammar parsing for facade segmentation using Reinforcement Learning (RL). Shape parsing entails simultaneously optimizing the geometry and the topology (e.g. number of floors) of the facade, so as to optimize the fit of the predicted shape with the responses of pixel-level ‘terminal detectors’. We formulate this problem in terms of a(More)
In this paper we propose a novel approach to the perceptual interpretation of building facades that combines shape grammars, supervised classification and random walks. Procedural modeling is used to model the geometric and the photometric variation of buildings. This is fused with visual classification techniques (randomized forests) that provide a crude(More)
Membrane vesicles are released from the surfaces of many gram-negative bacteria during growth. Vesicles consist of proteins, lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids, RNA, and DNA. Results of the present study demonstrate that membrane vesicles isolated from the food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 facilitate the transfer of genes, which are then expressed(More)
In this paper we introduce a novel approach to single view reconstruction using shape grammars. Our approach consists in modeling architectural styles using a set of basic shapes and a set of parametric rules, corresponding to increasing levels of detail. This approach is able to model elaborate and varying architectural styles, using a tree representation(More)
In this paper we tackle the problem of 3D modeling for urban environment using a modular, flexible and powerful approach driven from procedural generation. To this end, typologies of architectures are modeled through shape grammars that consist of a set of derivation rules and a set of shape/dictionary elements. Appearance (from statistical point of view(More)
Sakacin G is a 37-amino-acid-residue-long class IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake 2512, which is encoded by the duplicated structural genes skgA1 and skgA2. Sakacin G appears to be unique and seems to be an intermediate between pediocin-like bacteriocins, according to its double-disulfide bridges required for antimicrobial activity, and(More)
In this paper, we use shape grammars (SGs) for facade parsing, which amounts to segmenting 2D building facades into balconies, walls, windows, and doors in an architecturally meaningful manner. The main thrust of our work is the introduction of reinforcement learning (RL) techniques to deal with the computational complexity of the problem. RL provides us(More)
In this paper we address multi-view reconstruction of urban environments using 3D shape grammars. Our formulation expresses the solution to the problem as a shape grammar parse tree where both the tree and the corresponding derivation parameters are unknown. Besides the grammar constraint, the solution is guided by an image support that is twofold. First,(More)
In this paper, we propose a novel one-shot optimization approach to simultaneously determine both the optimal 3D landmark model and the corresponding 2D projections without explicit estimation of the camera viewpoint, which is also able to deal with misdetections as well as partial occlusions. To this end, a 3D shape manifold is built upon fourth-order(More)
Low-dose CT-like imaging systems offer numerous perspectives in terms of clinical application, in particular for osteoarticular diseases. In this paper, we address the challenging problem of 3D femur modeling and estimation from bi-planar views. Our contributions are threefold. First, we propose a non-uniform hierarchical decomposition of the shape prior of(More)