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A whole-cell bioassay has been developed for the total toxicity testing of liquid samples. The method is based on the induction of the bioluminescent activity of genetically manipulated mammalian cells. For that purpose, transfection was used to introduce, in HeLa cells, a DNA sensing element that responds to chemical stress agents (heavy metals, genotoxic(More)
The formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Candida boidinii is a well-known enzyme in biocatalysis for NADH regeneration. Nevertheless, it has low activity in a water-miscible ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [MMIm][Me2 PO4 ]). In this work, this enzyme was subjected to directed evolution by using error-prone PCR, and a mutant(More)
The study of protein conformation in ionic liquids (ILs) is crucial to understand enzymatic activity. Steady-state fluorescence is a proven, rapid and easy method to evaluate the protein structure in aqueous solutions, but it is discussed when used in ILs. In this work, the structure of the formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (FDH, EC: 1.2.1.2) in(More)
The use of gold nanoparticles as biological probes requires the improvement of colloidal stability. Dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), a dithiol obtained by the reduction of thioctic acid, appears therefore very attractive for the stabilization and the further functionalization of gold nanoparticles because DHLA is characterized by a carboxylic acid group and two(More)
BACKGROUND The BCL-2 family of proteins includes pro- and antiapoptotic members acting by controlling the permeabilization of mitochondria. Although the association of these proteins with the outer mitochondrial membrane is crucial for their function, little is known about the characteristics of this interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Here, we(More)
A semi-automated chemiluminescent competitive immunosensor for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is presented. Anti-2,4-D polyclonal antibodies are directly labelled with horseradish peroxidase allowing a p-iodophenol enhanced chemiluminescent detection. Using antigen immobilised on UltraBind type pre-activated membranes, the 2,4-D(More)
A serological chemiluminescent biochip was designed based on screen-printed electrode arrays composed of nine 1-mm(2) electrodes. Arrays were shown to be produced with good batch-to-batch reproducibility (standard deviations of 4.4 and 12.0% for ferricyanide oxidation potential and current, respectively) and very good reproducibility within a particular(More)
Diazonium cation electrodeposition was investigated for the direct and electro-addressed immobilization of proteins. For the first time, this reaction was triggered directly onto diazonium-modified proteins. Screen-printed (SP) graphite electrode microarrays were studied as active support for this immobilization. A 10-microelectrode (eight working(More)