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OBJECTIVE We assessed the driving skills of novice traditionally trained, novice early-trained, and experienced drivers to evaluate whether supervised early training could improve young drivers' skills. BACKGROUND The overall representation of young male drivers in car crashes is a recurrent problem in developed countries.To prevent this(More)
Arm stiffness is a critical factor underlying stable interactions with the environment. When the hand moves freely through space, a stiff limb would most effectively maintain the hand on the desired path in the face of external perturbations. Conversely, when constrained by a rigid surface, a compliant limb would allow the surface to guide the hand while(More)
Smooth physical interaction with our environment, such as when working with tools, requires adaptability to unpredictable perturbations that can be achieved through impedance control of multi-joint limbs. Modulation of arm stiffness can be achieved either increasing co-contraction of antagonistic muscles or by increasing the gain of spinal reflex loops.(More)
Arm stiffness is a critical factor underlying stable interactions with the environment. When the hand moves freely through space, a stiff limb would most effectively maintain the hand on the desired path in the face of external perturbations. Conversely, when constrained by a rigid surface, a compliant limb would allow the surface to guide the hand while(More)
In order to prevent the over-representation of young drivers in car crashes, France instated an early driver training from the age of 16, but the positive effects of this opportunity have not yet been proven. Three groups of male drivers (12 subjects each) were confronted with some prototypical accident scenarios introduced in a simulated urban circuit. The(More)
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