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The acquisition of reward and the avoidance of punishment could logically be contingent on either emitting or withholding particular actions. However, the separate pathways in the striatum for go and no-go appear to violate this independence, instead coupling affect and effect. Respect for this interdependence has biased many studies of reward and(More)
Working memory allows information from transient events to persist as active neural representations that can be used for goal-directed behaviors such as decision making and learning. Computational modeling based on neuronal firing patterns in animals suggests that one putative mechanism enabling working memory is periodic reactivation (henceforth termed(More)
Long-term memories are linked to cortical representations of perceived events, but it is unclear which types of representations can later be recollected. Using magnetoencephalography-based decoding, we examined which brain activity patterns elicited during encoding are later replayed during recollection in the human brain. The results show that the(More)
Decision-making invokes two fundamental axes of control: affect or valence, spanning reward and punishment, and effect or action, spanning invigoration and inhibition. We studied the acquisition of instrumental responding in healthy human volunteers in a task in which we orthogonalized action requirements and outcome valence. Subjects were much more(More)
This paper presents an extension of the Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) framework to the analysis of phase-coupled data. A weakly coupled oscillator approach is used to describe dynamic phase changes in a network of oscillators. The use of Bayesian model comparison allows one to infer the mechanisms underlying synchronization processes in the brain. For(More)
Recent accumulating evidence in animals and humans has shown that memory strengthening occurs, at least partially, during sleep and relies on the covert reactivation of individual memory episodes. However, it remains to be determined whether the hippocampus critically promotes memory consolidation via the reactivation of individual memories during sleep. To(More)
It has been suggested that chronic alcoholism may lead to altered neural mechanisms related to inhibitory processes. Here, we studied auditory N1 suppression phenomena (i.e. amplitude reduction with repetitive stimuli) in chronic alcoholic patients as an early-stage information-processing brain function involving inhibition by the analysis of the N1(More)
There is now growing evidence that the hippocampus generates theta rhythms that can phase bias fast neural oscillations in the neocortex, allowing coordination of widespread fast oscillatory populations outside limbic areas. A recent magnetoencephalographic study showed that maintenance of configural-relational scene information in a delayed match-to-sample(More)
Learning to fear danger in the environment is essential to survival, but dysregulation of the fear system is at the core of many anxiety disorders. As a consequence, a great interest has emerged in developing strategies for suppressing fear memories in maladaptive cases. Recent research has focused in the process of reconsolidation where memories become(More)
P50 event-related potential was studied in abstinent chronic alcoholics to determine whether they had normal sensory gating. Repeated tones were presented to 17 recently detoxified chronic alcoholic patients and 17 healthy subjects while EEG was recorded. Low-resolution tomography (LORETA) was performed to obtain cerebral sources of P50. Abstinent chronic(More)