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PURPOSE Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific angiogenic factor that serves an important role in numerous ischemic retinopathies. The authors studied the hypoxic gene regulation of two known VEGF receptors (KDR and Flt) and its mechanism in cultured bovine retinal endothelial cells (BREC). METHODS Confluent monolayers(More)
PURPOSE To determine the mechanistic role for adenosine and adenosine receptors in the hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinal microvascular cells. METHODS Bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells and microvascular pericytes were studied under normoxic (95% air, 5% CO2) or hypoxic conditions (0% to 2% O2, 5% CO2, 93% to(More)
PURPOSE Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also called scatter factor, stimulates growth and motility in nonocular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells through its receptor c-Met. Recent reports suggest that HGF is increased in the serum and vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and that smooth muscle cells and retinal pigment(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether intensive treatment (INT) with the goal of achieving blood glucose levels as close to the nondiabetic range as safely possible reduced the risk of onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared with conventional therapy (CON). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Diabetes Control(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effect of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in a mouse model of ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization and on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)--induced migration and growth of cultured microvascular endothelial cells. METHODS Human recombinant PEDF was expressed in the human embryonic kidney 293 cell line and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the extent of pancreatic β-cell function in a large number of insulin-dependent diabetic patients with a disease duration of 50 years or longer (Medalists). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Characterization of clinical and biochemical parameters and β-cell function of 411 Medalists with correlation with postmortem morphologic findings of(More)
Diabetic macular edema, resulting from increased microvascular permeability, is the most prevalent cause of vision loss in diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this complication remain poorly understood. In the current study, diabetic vascular permeability (blood-retinal barrier breakdown) is demonstrated to result from a leukocyte-mediated(More)
PURPOSE A critical early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is leukocyte adhesion to the diabetic retinal vasculature. The process is mediated, in part, by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and results in blood-retinal barrier breakdown and capillary nonperfusion. This study evaluated the expression and function of the corresponding(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ability to determine clinical levels of diabetic retinopathy, timing of next appropriate retinal evaluation, and necessity of referral to ophthalmology specialists using stereoscopic nonmydriatic digital-video color retinal images as compared with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) seven standard field 35-mm(More)