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BACKGROUND Retinal ischemia induces intraocular neovascularization, which often leads to glaucoma, vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment, presumably by stimulating the release of angiogenic molecules. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial-cell-specific angiogenic factor whose production is increased by hypoxia. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic protein and vasopermeability factor whose intraocular concentrations are closely correlated with active neovascularization in patients with diabetes mellitus, central retinal vein occlusion, retinopathy of prematurity, and rubeosis iridis. OBJECTIVE To determine whether hypoxia could(More)
Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes is primarily attributable to sequelae of microvascular and macrovascular disease. Over the past decade, dramatic progress has been achieved in elucidating the fundamental processes underlying the pathogenesis of these complications. Angiogenic factors in particular now appear to play a pivotal(More)
OBJECTIVE Evaluate intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab or 4 mg triamcinolone combined with focal/grid laser compared with focal/grid laser alone for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN Multicenter, randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS A total of 854 study eyes of 691 participants with visual acuity (approximate Snellen equivalent) of 20/32(More)
Increased vascular permeability and excessive neovascularization are the hallmarks of endothelial dysfunction, which can lead to diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the eye. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important mediator of ocular neovascularization and a known vasopermeability factor in nonocular tissues. In(More)
Fibroblastic proliferation accompanies many angiogenesis-related retinal and systemic diseases. Since connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a potent mitogen for fibrosis, extracellular matrix production, and angiogenesis, we have studied the effects and mechanism by which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates CTGF gene expression in(More)
OBJECTIVE Diabetic retinopathy, which leads to macular edema and retinal neovascularization, is the leading cause of blindness among working-age Americans. Previous research has demonstrated significant cost savings associated with detection of eye disease in Americans with type I diabetes. However, detection and treatment of eye disease among those with(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate 14-week effects of intravitreal ranibizumab or triamcinolone in eyes receiving focal/grid laser for diabetic macular edema and panretinal photocoagulation. METHODS Three hundred and forty-five eyes with a visual acuity of 20/320 or better, center-involved diabetic macular edema receiving focal/grid laser, and diabetic retinopathy(More)
The objective of this study was to compare, using a 12-month time frame, the cost-effectiveness of a non-mydriatic digital tele-ophthalmology system (Joslin Vision Network) versus traditional clinic-based ophthalmoscopy examinations with pupil dilation to detect proliferative diabetic retinopathy and its consequences. Decision analysis techniques, including(More)