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Understanding how the immune system affects cancer development and progression has been one of the most challenging questions in immunology. Research over the past two decades has helped explain why the answer to this question has evaded us for so long. We now appreciate that the immune system plays a dual role in cancer: It can not only suppress tumor(More)
A growing number of human tumor antigens have been described that can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. Serological screening of cDNA expression libraries, SEREX, has recently been shown to provide another route for defining immunogenic human tumor antigens. The detection(More)
Lymphocytes were originally thought to form the basis of a 'cancer immunosurveillance' process that protects immunocompetent hosts against primary tumour development, but this idea was largely abandoned when no differences in primary tumour development were found between athymic nude mice and syngeneic wild-type mice. However, subsequent observations that(More)
The capacity of immunity to control and shape cancer, that is, cancer immunoediting, is the result of three processes that function either independently or in sequence: elimination (cancer immunosurveillance, in which immunity functions as an extrinsic tumour suppressor in naive hosts); equilibrium (expansion of transformed cells is held in check by(More)
We have reviewed our laboratory's efforts to establish continuous human renal cancer cell lines. During the 16-year period of 1972 through 1987, 498 successive attempts resulted in establishment of 63 renal cancer cell lines. Of these lines, 46 were derived from primary kidney tumors and 17 from metastatic sites (lung, brain, bone, and lymph node).(More)
Evidence is growing for both humoral and cellular immune recognition of human tumor antigens. Antibodies with specificity for antigens initially recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), e.g., MAGE and tyrosinase, have been detected in melanoma patient sera, and CTLs with specificity for NY-ESO-1, a cancer-testis (CT) antigen initially identified by(More)
Cancer immunoediting, the process by which the immune system controls tumour outgrowth and shapes tumour immunogenicity, is comprised of three phases: elimination, equilibrium and escape. Although many immune components that participate in this process are known, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. A central tenet of cancer immunoediting is(More)
The antigenic targets recognized by naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) have been elusive. We have serologically defined a series of broadly expressed self-antigens derived from chemically induced mouse sarcomas by serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning (SEREX). CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from(More)
Unlike chemotherapy, which acts directly on the tumor, cancer immunotherapies exert their effects on the immune system and demonstrate new kinetics that involve building a cellular immune response, followed by changes in tumor burden or patient survival. Thus, adequate design and evaluation of some immunotherapy clinical trials require a new development(More)