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A growing number of human tumor antigens have been described that can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. Serological screening of cDNA expression libraries, SEREX, has recently been shown to provide another route for defining immunogenic human tumor antigens. The detection(More)
Evidence is growing for both humoral and cellular immune recognition of human tumor antigens. Antibodies with specificity for antigens initially recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), e.g., MAGE and tyrosinase, have been detected in melanoma patient sera, and CTLs with specificity for NY-ESO-1, a cancer-testis (CT) antigen initially identified by(More)
  • Catherine M Koebel, William Vermi, Jeremy B Swann, Nadeen Zerafa, Scott J Rodig, Lloyd J Old +2 others
  • 2008
The capacity of immunity to control and shape cancer, that is, cancer immunoediting, is the result of three processes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 that function either independently or in sequence 9 : elimination (cancer immunosurveillance, in which immunity functions as an extrinsic tumour suppressor in naive hosts); equilibrium (expansion of transformed cells(More)
Cancer immunoediting, the process by which the immune system controls tumour outgrowth and shapes tumour immunogenicity, is comprised of three phases: elimination, equilibrium and escape. Although many immune components that participate in this process are known, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. A central tenet of cancer immunoediting is(More)
T wo questions have dominated the field of human cancer immunology throughout its history. Do cancer-specific antigens exist and, if so, are they recognized by the autologous host? Until recently, attempts to provide definitive answers to these questions have not been rewarded with much success. However, as in so many other areas of research where technical(More)
The potency of the immune response has still to be harnessed effectively to combat human cancers. However, the discovery of T-cell targets in melanomas and other tumors has raised the possibility that cancer vaccines can be used to induce a therapeutically effective immune response against cancer. The targets, cancer-testis (CT) antigens, are immunogenic(More)
Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe,(More)
  • Anthony P Albino, Kenneth O Lloyd, Alan N Houghton, Herbert F Oettgen, Lloyd J Old, T Watanabe +5 others
  • 1981
Over the past several years, we have been analyzing the reactivity of human sera for cell surface antigens of malignant melanoma and other human tumors (1-10). The major focus of this work has been to determine whether patients develop antibodies that have specificity for autologous tumor cells. The approach that we developed to answer this question has(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer/testis (CT) genes are normally expressed only in germ cells, but can be activated in the cancer state. This unusual property, together with the finding that many CT proteins elicit an antigenic response in cancer patients, has established a role for this class of genes as targets in immunotherapy regimes. Many families of CT genes have(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are protein antigens normally expressed only in germ cells of testis, and yet are expressed in a proportion of a wide variety of human cancers. CT antigens can elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients with CT-positive cancers, and CT antigen-based therapeutic cancer vaccine trials are ongoing for(More)