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This review discuses the ultrastructural aspects of cell wall lignification and lignin topochemistry. Lignification results from the enzyme mediated polymerization of monolignols initiated by unknown factors (initiation sites) located at the corners of cells and in the middle lamella. Lignification results in the filling of pores within the carbohydrate(More)
How the diverse polysaccharides present in plant cell walls are assembled and interlinked into functional composites is not known in detail. Here, using two novel monoclonal antibodies and a carbohydrate-binding module directed against the mannan group of hemicellulose cell wall polysaccharides, we show that molecular recognition of mannan polysaccharides(More)
Lignin distribution in developing tracheids of Pinus radiata was studied throughout the growth' season using quantitative interference microscopy. The pattern of lignification remained constant although the number of lignifying cells varied reaching a maximum in summer. Lignification of the secondary wall of latewood tracheids was incomplete at the onset of(More)
Severe suppression of 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase (4CL) in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata substantially affected plant phenotype and resulted in dwarfed plants with a "bonsai tree-like" appearance. Microscopic analyses of stem sections from 2-year-old plants revealed substantial morphological changes in both wood and bark tissues. This included(More)
A male cone-specific promoter from Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) was used to express a stilbene synthase gene (STS) in anthers of transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, resulting in complete male sterility in 70% of transformed plants. Three plants were 98%-99.9% male sterile, as evidenced by pollen germination. To identify the stage at which transgenic(More)
Wood formation was investigated at five heights along the bole for two unrelated trees of Pinus radiata. Both trees showed clear gradients in wood properties from the base to the crown. Cambial cells at the base of the tree were dividing 3.3-fold slower than those at the crown, while the average thickness of cell walls in wood was highest at the base. Cell(More)
The ultrastructure of lignifying cell walls in Pinus radiata D.Don was investigated using potassium permanganate staining and transmission electron microscopy. Lignin deposition occurred at numerous discrete sites within various cell wall regions, suggesting the presence of some initiating agent at these sites. In the middle lamella region, lignin(More)
The distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides in cell walls of tracheids and xylem parenchyma cells in normal and compression wood of Pinus radiata, was examined to determine the relationships with lignification and cellulose microfibril orientation. Using fluorescence microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry, monoclonal antibodies were used to(More)
The ultrastructure of steam-exploded wood from the softwood Pinus radiata D. Don was examined by electron microscopy in order to determine the reasons for increased porosity and enhanced susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis. Ultrastructural changes were observed in the form of lignin redistribution and swelling of the cellulose framework. Lignin showed(More)