Lloyd A. Donaldson

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This review discuses the ultrastructural aspects of cell wall lignification and lignin topochemistry. Lignification results from the enzyme mediated polymerization of monolignols initiated by unknown factors (initiation sites) located at the corners of cells and in the middle lamella. Lignification results in the filling of pores within the carbohydrate(More)
How the diverse polysaccharides present in plant cell walls are assembled and interlinked into functional composites is not known in detail. Here, using two novel monoclonal antibodies and a carbohydrate-binding module directed against the mannan group of hemicellulose cell wall polysaccharides, we show that molecular recognition of mannan polysaccharides(More)
Steam explosion after sulphur dioxide impregnation of wood chips is an effective method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose in the softwood Pinus radiata. Digestibility of pretreated fiber was progressively increased by altering the conditions of steam explosion. With increasing digestibility, there was an observed increase in fiber(More)
Wood formation was investigated at five heights along the bole for two unrelated trees of Pinus radiata. Both trees showed clear gradients in wood properties from the base to the crown. Cambial cells at the base of the tree were dividing 3.3-fold slower than those at the crown, while the average thickness of cell walls in wood was highest at the base. Cell(More)
The distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides in cell walls of tracheids and xylem parenchyma cells in normal and compression wood of Pinus radiata, was examined to determine the relationships with lignification and cellulose microfibril orientation. Using fluorescence microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry, monoclonal antibodies were used to(More)
Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to examine the spectral characteristics of lignin autofluorescence in secondary cell walls of normal and compression wood from Pinus radiata. Using UV excitation, fluorescence spectra of normal and compression wood sections showed significant differences, especially in the outer secondary cell wall of tracheids,(More)
Severe suppression of 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase (4CL) in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata substantially affected plant phenotype and resulted in dwarfed plants with a "bonsai tree-like" appearance. Microscopic analyses of stem sections from 2-year-old plants revealed substantial morphological changes in both wood and bark tissues. This included(More)
The organization of wood cell wall components involves aggregates of cellulose microfibrils and matrix known as macrofibrils. A combination of field emission electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to visualise the organization of macrofibrils in different cell wall types comparing normal and reaction wood of radiata pine(More)
Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC–MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines,(More)
The ultrastructure of steam-exploded wood from the softwood Pinus radiata D. Don was examined by electron microscopy in order to determine the reasons for increased porosity and enhanced susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis. Ultrastructural changes were observed in the form of lignin redistribution and swelling of the cellulose framework. Lignin showed(More)