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If cytokines are constitutively expressed by and act on neurons in normal adult brain, then we may have to modify our current view that they are predominantly inflammatory mediators. We critically reviewed the literature to determine whether we could find experimental basis for such a modification. We focused on two "proinflammatory" cytokines, interleukin(More)
One of the neuronal growth-associated proteins, GAP-43 (molecular mass, approximately 43 kDa; pI 4.3), is abundant in growth-cone membranes and corresponds to a major protein kinase C substrate, the 46-kDa phosphoprotein (pp46), of a growth-cone-enriched subcellular fraction. This protein has the following additional designations (depending on context):(More)
Glutamine synthetase plays a central role in the detoxification of brain ammonia. Previously, we demonstrated that in vitro glutamine synthetase is expressed by all macroglial cell types and is developmentally regulated in oligodendrocyte lineage. Furthermore, glutamine synthetase is increased in secondary cultures of oligodendrocytes following a 72 h(More)
A cDNA has been isolated from a human brain expression library using anti-bovine glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antibodies. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 774 nucleotides, which codes for 258 amino acids. The 258-amino-acid sequence is 95% homologous to the carboxy terminus of human liver GDH. This high degree of homology indicates that the cDNA codes(More)
For the past two decades the brain has been considered to be an immune-privileged site that excludes circulating cells from the parenchyma. New evidence indicates that some hematocytes reside in the brain, while others traffic through it. Mast cells belong to both of these functional types. Moreover, the appearance of mast cells in the CNS can be triggered(More)
There is an increasingly impressive database concerning the possible involvement of cytokines in depression and their role in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants. Based on the discussions which took place on these issues at a recent meeting held in Roscoff, France, this perspective summarizes in a critical way the evidence in favor of such a(More)
Gliosis is the most frequent and therefore important neurocellular reaction to brain insult occurring in diseases ranging from AIDS to infarction. Neuropathological diagnosis of gliosis is based on morphological changes of brain glial cells. Changes commonly agreed to reflect gliosis are qualitative increases in size, number and glial fibrillary acidic(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) are proinflammatory cytokines that are constitutively expressed in healthy, adult brain where they mediate normal neural functions such as sleep. They are neuromodulators expressed by and acting on neurons and glia. IL-1 and TNFalpha expression is upregulated in several important(More)
Primary rat astrocytes were found by immunohistochemistry to display positive staining for endothelin-3, located predominantly in the perinuclear area. The ability of these cells to produce and release endothelin-3 was confirmed by a combination of reverse-phase HPLC and radioimmunoassay, specific for endothelin-3, which demonstrated immunoreactive peptide(More)