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If cytokines are constitutively expressed by and act on neurons in normal adult brain, then we may have to modify our current view that they are predominantly inflammatory mediators. We critically reviewed the literature to determine whether we could find experimental basis for such a modification. We focused on two "proinflammatory" cytokines, interleukin(More)
For the past two decades the brain has been considered to be an immune-privileged site that excludes circulating cells from the parenchyma. New evidence indicates that some hematocytes reside in the brain, while others traffic through it. Mast cells belong to both of these functional types. Moreover, the appearance of mast cells in the CNS can be triggered(More)
A 2.4 kb cDNA clone containing the coding sequence for glutamine synthetase (GS) was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library, and a probe constructed from this cDNA was utilized in Northern analysis of total RNA to study the tissue distribution and the ontogeny of GS mRNA expression in the rat brain from embryonic day 14 (E14) to adulthood. The levels of GS(More)
One of the neuronal growth-associated proteins, GAP-43 (molecular mass, approximately 43 kDa; pI 4.3), is abundant in growth-cone membranes and corresponds to a major protein kinase C substrate, the 46-kDa phosphoprotein (pp46), of a growth-cone-enriched subcellular fraction. This protein has the following additional designations (depending on context):(More)
RodA and rodB mutations cause rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis cells to become coccus-shaped when the growth temperature is increased from 30 to 45 degrees C. At 30 degrees C four rod strains sporulated as well as the genetically closely related rod+ strains. In contrast, at 45 degrees C the sporulation frequencies of rod strains decreased approximately 10(2)-(More)
Bacillus subtilis mutants with reduced rates of cell wall autolysis reached a constant rate of wall turnover after a longer lag than the standard strain but eventually showed the same turnover rate. In reverse, a turnover-deficient mutant autolysed at a slightly higher rate than the standard strain. Consequently, there is no correlation between the rates of(More)
Glutamine synthetase plays a central role in the detoxification of brain ammonia. Previously, we demonstrated that in vitro glutamine synthetase is expressed by all macroglial cell types and is developmentally regulated in oligodendrocyte lineage. Furthermore, glutamine synthetase is increased in secondary cultures of oligodendrocytes following a 72 h(More)
Peptidoglycan turnover was measured by the decrease of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable label in cells labeled with N-acetyl-D-[14C]glucosamine. The rate of turnover was reduced strongly by the inhibition of RNA or protein synthesis and weakly by the inhibition of lipid, peptidoglycan, or DNA synthesis. It increased with the growth rate (which was(More)
A cDNA has been isolated from a human brain expression library using anti-bovine glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antibodies. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 774 nucleotides, which codes for 258 amino acids. The 258-amino-acid sequence is 95% homologous to the carboxy terminus of human liver GDH. This high degree of homology indicates that the cDNA codes(More)