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OBJECTIVES To carry out a prospective combined quantitative analysis of the associations between all cause mortality and ambient particulate matter and sulphur dioxide. DESIGN Analysis of time series data on daily number of deaths from all causes and concentrations of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter (measured as black smoke or particles smaller(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To review the issues and methodologies in epidemiologic time series studies of daily counts of mortality and hospital admissions and illustrate some of the methodologies. DESIGN This is a review paper with an example drawn from hospital admissions of the elderly in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. MAIN RESULTS The central issue is control for(More)
We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data(More)
Ten large European cities provided data on daily air pollution as well as mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. We used Poisson autoregressive models that controlled for trend, season, influenza epidemics, and meteorologic influences to assess the short-term effects of air pollution at each city. We then compared and pooled the(More)
BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to assess the combined association between urban air pollution and emergency admissions for asthma during the years 1986-92 in Barcelona, Helsinki, Paris and London. METHODS Daily counts were made of asthma admissions and visits to the emergency room in adults (age range 15-64 years) and children (< 15 years). Covariates(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Results from several studies over the past five years have shown that the current levels of pollutants in Europe and North America have adverse short term effects on health. The APHEA project aims to quantifying these in Europe, using standardised methodology. The project protocol and analytical methodology are presented here. (More)
Short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality in eight western and five central-eastern European countries have been reported previously, as part of the APHEA project. One intriguing finding was that the effects were lower in central-eastern European cities. The analysis used sinusoidal terms for seasonal control and polynomial terms for(More)
The aim of the study was to examine the use of Porter's generic strategies and their effect on performance in the context of the Slovak hospital industry. Using mail survey the study first identified the natural taxonomy of four strategic types of Slovak hospitals, based on their use of Porter's generic strategies in pure form and in combination. Next the(More)
The Air Pollution and Health: a European Approach (APHEA) project is a coordinated study of the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality and hospital admissions using data from 15 European cities, with a wide range of geographic, sociodemographic, climatic, and air quality patterns. The objective of this paper is to summarize the results of the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE On the basis of our previous results of animal and human studies, we assume that the discrepancies between increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings not exceeding the upper normal limits in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are conditioned by the electrical remodeling of hypertrophied myocardium.(More)