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BACKGROUND The sciatic nerve, as the terminal branch of the sacral plexus, leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen beneath the piriform muscle. Afterwards, it separates into the tibial and the common peroneal nerve, most frequently at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher level of the sciatic nerve division is a(More)
Carotid–vertebrobasilar anastomoses—the trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal intersegmental arteries—serve as transitory channels between primitive internal carotid arteries and bilateral longitudinal neural arterial plexus, which is the precursor of future basilar artery, when the human embryo reaches about 4-mm length. Normal and/or abnormal(More)
It is noted that the vertebral artery lies buried in a sea of generalities, prejudices, fear, and ignorance in the clinical literature. This fact is the reason why this observation is based on 11 cases, selected from 206 fetal cases, of various duplications of the vertebral artery. Aberrant or anastomotic vessels are illustrated and their definition is(More)
OBJECT The authors describe some of the features of the medial striate branch or recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH). This structure has indisputable functional, neurological, and neurosurgical significance, and originates from the A(1) and/or A(2) segments of the anterior cerebral artery. METHODS Microdissection of 94 human fetal specimens was performed.(More)
The ancient knowledge of the cerebral arterial circle (CAC) angioarchitecture could be supplemented by either a new or a forgotten old fact about it. Therefore, 7 cases of a rare form of the CAC of fetuses were described, where the so-called intermediate communicating artery, as an excess vessel into the posterior part, represented either its new vascular(More)
An unpaired trunk forming part of the anterior cerebral arteries, the so-called azygos pericallosal artery, was found in a male fetus among a collection of 200 fetuses. The morphological characteristics of the trunk and the anterior cerebral arteries at the "preazygos" and the "postazygos" segments were examined using an operating microscope. The azygos(More)
Primitive carotid–vertebral and carotid–basilar anastomoses are formed early during human embryogenesis at approximately 24 days. From cephalic to caudal direction, these anastomoses are cranial extensions of the primitive internal carotid, trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal and proatlantal intersegmental arteries. Normal and/or abnormal morphofunctional aspects(More)
Early prenatal diagnostics and the importance of genetic counseling are of great interest for echosonographic evaluation of normal fetus anatomy. Development of the human fetal kidney runs through a series of continual and mutually dependent changes during which the kidney obtains its morphological and functional maturity. This study was created to estimate(More)
BACKGROUND Although centuries of the human CAC research are behind us, still there is a stimulus for the authors to describe something new or to add to the "archive" of already known facts about its angioarchitecture. METHODS With normal configurations of the posterior part of the CAC in early prenatal status, 172 brains of human fetuses from the 13th to(More)
Three primitive arteries - the trigeminal, otic and hypoglossal take the names according to their close relation with the V, VIII and XII cranial nerves, while at the cervical level, the first segmental artery is named the primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery. When the human embryo is 4 mm long, these arteries serve as transitory anastomoses between(More)