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The results of three population-based studies on violence against women in Nicaragua are compared in this article. Two of the studies were regional in scope (León and Managua) and focused specifically on women's experiences of violence, whereas the third study was a Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted with a nationally representative sample of(More)
Advantage-S, a spermicide containing nonoxynol-9 (N-9), has recently been shown in a randomised, controlled trial sponsored by UNAIDS not to offer women protection against sexual transmission of HIV. The women in the trial, all sex workers, reported having an average of 3.6 partners per day and about 70 coital acts per month during the study period. At the(More)
The ability of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests to predict in-stream effects to periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in a habitat-impaired stream was assessed. Habitat assessment data were useful in interpreting in-stream conditions for periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates. Various periphyton and macroinvertebrate metrics identified(More)
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