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There has recently been much debate about the influence of social capital on health outcomes. In particular it has been suggested that levels of social capital vary from place to place and that such variations may account for previously unexplained between-place variations in health outcomes. As yet few studies exist of the influence of small-area(More)
BACKGROUND There is little geographical variation in the prevalence of the common mental disorders. However, there is little longitudinal research. AIMS To estimate variance in rates of common mental disorders at individual, household and electoral ward levels prospectively. METHOD A 12-month cohort study of 7659 adults aged 16-74 years in 4338 private(More)
Much attention is focused on obesity by both the media and by public health. As a health risk, obesity is recognised as a contributing factor to numerous health problems. Recent evidence points to a growth in levels of obesity in many countries and particular attention is usually given to rising levels of obesity among younger people. England is no(More)
BACKGROUND Well-being is an important determinant of health and social outcomes. Measures of positive mental health states are needed for population-based research. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been widely used in many settings and languages, and includes positively and negatively worded items. Our aim was to test the hypothesis(More)
Health-related behaviours are of central importance to health promotion and to the promotion of enhanced population health. In the UK, localised knowledge of the quantitative dimensions of health-related behaviours is traditionally attained by conducting a costly sample survey. Such surveys seldom generate reliable data at scales more local than that of the(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To test hypotheses about associations between area level exposures and the prevalence of the most common mental disorders (CMD) in Britain. A statistically significant urban-rural gradient was predicted, but not a socioeconomic gradient, in the prevalence of CMD after adjusting for characteristics of individual respondents. The study tested(More)
It is still not known whether the places that people live affect their mental health. The principal aim of this 1991 study was to quantify simultaneously variance in the prevalence of the most common mental disorders, anxiety and depression, in Britain at the individual, household, and electoral ward levels. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally(More)
BACKGROUND Some UK studies have reported an urban excess in the prevalence of the most common mental disorders of anxiety and depression. AIMS To investigate rural/non-rural differences in the onset and maintenance of episodes of common mental disorders, after adjusting for the characteristics of respondents and their households. METHOD A12-month cohort(More)
A recent paper in Social Science and Medicine (Twigg et al. 50 (2000) 1109) outlined an approach to the estimation of prevalences of small-area health-related behaviour using multilevel models. This paper compares results from the application of the multilevel approach with those derived using the more traditional strategy of the local 'lifestyle' survey.(More)
Smoking prevalence in England continues to reduce but further reduction is increasingly difficult. Cessation policy has successfully targeted those who want to quit but further reduction will need to shift attention to more difficult 'core smoker' populations. Following the established 'stages of change' perspective, this paper considers the characteristics(More)