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In recent years, many architectural design efforts have focused on maximizing performance for frequently executed, simple instructions. Although these efforts have resulted in machines with better average price/performance ratios, certain complex instructions and, thus, certain classes of programs which heavily depend on these instructions may suffer by(More)
Breastfeeding is widely viewed as the optimal feeding method for infants among professional nursing and medical organizations. Its health benefits have been comprehensively studied and documented for both infants and mothers. Hospitals and birthing centers can strongly influence the outcomes for mothers who choose to breastfeed by establishing effective(More)
First-born children receive more parental time investments and this birth order difference is larger when children are spaced further apart in age. I use this natural within-family variation to estimate the effect of parental time investments on their children’s reading test scores. Properly instrumenting for parent child reading is crucial since parents(More)
Parents face a number of decisions that involve a trade-off between the amount of time and money they can provide their children. This paper estimates the relative impact of parental time and family income on child outcomes. Parents generally allocate resources equally among their children at each point in time but the amount of resources available to(More)
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