This review introduces some commonly used methods for assessing the performance of a diagnostic test. The sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio of a test are discussed. The uses of the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve are explained.
The present review introduces methods of analyzing the relationship between two quantitative variables. The calculation and interpretation of the sample product moment correlation coefficient and the linear regression equation are discussed and illustrated. Common misuses of the techniques are considered. Tests and confidence intervals for the population… (More)
This review introduces logistic regression, which is a method for modelling the dependence of a binary response variable on one or more explanatory variables. Continuous and categorical explanatory variables are considered.
This review introduces nonparametric methods for testing differences between more than two groups or treatments. Three of the more common tests are described in detail, together with multiple comparison procedures for identifying specific differences between pairs of groups.
This review introduces methods of analyzing data arising from studies where the response variable is the length of time taken to reach a certain end-point, often death. The Kaplan-Meier methods, log rank test and Cox's proportional hazards model are described.
This review introduces one-way analysis of variance, which is a method of testing differences between more than two groups or treatments. Multiple comparison procedures and orthogonal contrasts are described as methods for identifying specific differences between pairs of treatments.
—Euler diagrams, which form the basis of numerous visual languages, can be an effective representation of information when they are both well-matched and well-formed. However, being well-matched and well-formed alone does not imply effectiveness. Other diagrammatical properties need to be considered. Information visualization theorists have known for some… (More)
This review introduces methods for investigating relationships between two qualitative (categorical) variables. The chi2 test of association is described, together with the modifications needed for small samples. The test for trend, in which at least one of the variables is ordinal, is also outlined. Risk measurement is discussed. The calculation of… (More)
Euler diagrams are often used for visualizing data collected into sets. However, there is a significant lack of guidance regarding graph-ical choices for Euler diagram layout. To address this deficiency, this paper asks the question 'does the shape of a closed curve affect a user's comprehension of an Euler diagram?' By empirical study, we establish that… (More)
Relative risk and odds ratio have been introduced in earlier reviews (see Statistics reviews 3, 6 and 8). This review describes the calculation and interpretation of their confidence intervals. The different circumstances in which the use of either the relative risk or odds ratio is appropriate and their relative merits are discussed. A method of measuring… (More)