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This article presents a theory in which automatization is construed as the acquisition of a domain-specific knowledge base, formed of separate representations, instances, of each exposure to the task. Processing is considered automatic if it relies on retrieval of stored instances, which will occur only after practice in a consistent environment. Practice(More)
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (A. thiooxidans), a chemolithoautotrophic extremophile, is widely used in the industrial recovery of copper (bioleaching or biomining). The organism grows and survives by autotrophically utilizing energy derived from the oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs). However, the lack of genetic(More)
The genus Sulfobacillus is a cohort of mildly thermophilic or thermotolerant acidophiles within the phylum Firmicutes and requires extremely acidic environments and hypersalinity for optimal growth. However, our understanding of them is still preliminary partly because few genome sequences are available. Here, the draft genome of Sulfobacillus(More)
We report on two unrelated families from the Beijing area in which the autosomal dominant gene for van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is segregating. The clinical features include paramedian lower lip pits (fistula labii inferioris congenita), cleft palate, and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. All three of the clinical features may occur together in an(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether there is a difference in the risk of endophthalmitis after an intravitreal steroid injection compared with an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent injection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS A total of 75,249 beneficiaries in a large national US medical claims database representing 406 380(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the alterations of Protein Kinase C epsilon (PKC epsilon) and components of its signaling complexes after treatment with fosinopril and carvedilol and analyze potential molecular mechanisms of the two drugs for cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. METHODS Pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy (POH) was developed in 8-week-old(More)
Traditional in vitro nanotoxicity researches are conducted on cultured two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cells and thereby cannot reflect organism response to nanoparticle toxicities at tissue levels. This paper describes a new, high-throughput approach to test in vitro nanotoxicity in three-dimensional (3D) microtissue array, where microtissues are formed by(More)
This paper describes the use of a single cell array based assay for genotoxicity study of nanomaterials using normal human fetal fibroblast cells obtained from two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures and three-dimensional (3D) microtissue. After being exposed to a suspension of nanomaterials, cells are attached onto microfabricated patches with proper(More)
This study used an artificial enrichment microbial consortium to examine the effects of different substrate conditions on microbial diversity, composition, and function (e.g., zinc leaching efficiency) through adding pyrite (SP group), chalcopyrite (SC group), or both (SPC group) in sphalerite bioleaching systems. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed(More)
A new method that utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and exploits the hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange properties of proteins was developed for measuring the thermodynamic properties of protein-ligand complexes in solution. Dissociation constants (Kd values) determined by the method for five model protein-ligand(More)