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A new technique for facial expression recognition is proposed, which uses the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete cosine transform (DCT) over the entire face image as a feature detector and a constructive one-hidden-layer feedforward neural network as a facial expression classifier. An input-side pruning technique, proposed previously by the authors, is also(More)
Oesophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 70% of global oesophageal cancer cases occur in China, with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) being the histopathological form in the vast majority of cases (>90%). Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for the(More)
In this paper, a constructive one-hidden-layer network is introduced where each hidden unit employs a polynomial function for its activation function that is different from other units. Specifically, both a structure level as well as a function level adaptation methodologies are utilized in constructing the network. The functional level adaptation scheme(More)
BACKGROUND The B', CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE are the predominant HIV-1 subtypes in China. It is essential to determine their baseline susceptibility to HIV entry inhibitors before these drugs are used in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS The baseline susceptibility of 14 representative HIV-1 isolates (5 CRF07_BC, 4 CRF01_AE, and 5 B'), most of which were(More)
In this paper a new strategy for adaptively and autonomously constructing a multi-hidden-layer feedforward neural network (FNN) is introduced. The proposed scheme belongs to a class of structure level adaptation algorithms that adds both new hidden units and new hidden layers one at a time when it is determined to be needed. Using this strategy, a FNN may(More)
To study HIV-1 genetic diversity among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, a cohort consisting of HIV-positive MSM was established in 2005 and was monitored every 2 years. In 2007, 44 HIVpositiveMSM subjects were genotyped, and the results showed HIV-1 subtype B decreased from 77.5% to41.9%, but non-B subtypes increased rapidly(More)
With the intense international response to the AIDS pandemic, HIV vaccines have been extensively investigated but have failed due to issues of safety or efficacy in humans. Adjuvants for HIV/AIDS vaccines are under intense research but a rational design approach is still lacking. Nanomaterials represent an obvious opportunity in this field due to their(More)
The performance of the conventional least mean square (LMS) Fourier analyzer may degenerate significantly, if the signal frequencies given to the analyzer are different from the true signal frequencies. This difference is referred to as frequency mismatch (FM). In this paper, we first analyze the performance of the conventional LMS Fourier analyzer for a(More)
Limited information is available on the prevalence among rural Africans of host genetic polymorphisms conferring resistance to HIV-1 infection or slowing HIV disease progression. We report the allelic frequencies of the AIDS-related polymorphisms CCR2-64I, SDF1-3'A, and CCR5-Delta32 in 321 volunteers from 7 ethnic groups in Cameroon. Allelic frequencies(More)
HIV-1 CRF07_BC constitutes a large fraction of HIV-1 strains circulating in China and is responsible for the rapidly expanding epidemic across the country. Little is known about the biological characteristics of the CRF07_BC viruses, particularly the propensity by which this circulating recombinant form of HIV replicates within an infected individual. In(More)