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The development of a tumor vasculature or access to the host vasculature is a crucial step for the survival and metastasis of malignant tumors. Although therapeutic strategies attempting to inhibit this step during tumor development are being developed, the biological regulation of this process is still largely unknown. Using a transgenic mouse susceptible(More)
The brain contains numerous mononuclear phagocytes called microglia. These cells express the transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for the macrophage growth factor colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1R). Using a CSF-1R-GFP reporter mouse strain combined with lineage defining antibody staining we show in the postnatal mouse brain that CSF-1R is expressed only(More)
Animal models are powerful tools to analyze the mechanism of the induction of human breast cancer. Here we report a detailed analysis of mammary tumor progression in one mouse model of breast cancer caused by expression of the polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) in the mammary epithelium, and its comparison to human breast tumors. In PyMT mice, four(More)
In mice, the uterus becomes transiently receptive to the hatched blastocyst on the day of implantation to allow its attachment to the luminal epithelium and subsequent invasion into the uterus. This uterine preparation for implantation is regulated by estradiol-17beta and progesterone, acting through their transcription factor receptors. Using(More)
Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34) are functional ligands of the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) and thus are key regulators of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. We discovered that systemic administration of human recombinant CSF1 ameliorates memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. CSF1 and IL-34 strongly reduced(More)
The uterine epithelium of mice and humans undergoes cyclical waves of cell proliferation and differentiation under the regulation of estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4). These epithelial cells respond to E2 with increased protein and DNA synthesis, whereas P4 inhibits only the E2-induced DNA synthetic response. Here we show that E2 regulates protein(More)
The mammalian cell cycle is regulated by the cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (pRB) family of proteins. Cyclin D1 with its CDK4/6 partners initiates the cell cycle and acts as the link between extracellular signals and the cell cycle machinery. Estradiol-17beta (E2) stimulates uterine epithelial cell proliferation,(More)
The association between extreme-prematurity births and intrauterine infection emphasizes the importance of understanding the host immune responses against uterine-invading microbes during early pregnancy to the prevention of preterm births. Listeria monocytogenes, a clinically relevant intracellular bacterium, has a predilection for replication at the(More)
An important step in the process of metastasis from the primary tumor is invasive spread into the surrounding stroma. Using an in vivo invasion assay, we have previously shown that imposed gradients of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) can induce invasion through an EGF/CSF-1 paracrine loop between cancer cells and(More)
BACKGROUND In mouse endometrium, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) is a key enzyme controlling nuclear localization of cyclin D1. We developed a functional model of xenografted human endometrium to test whether similar mechanisms are operative in the human by using Lithium chloride (LiCl), an inhibitor of GSK3beta. METHODS Human endometrial(More)