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Contextual representations serve to guide many aspects of behavior and influence the way stimuli or actions are encoded and interpreted. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), including the anterior cingulate subregion, has been implicated in contextual encoding, yet the nature of contextual representations formed by the mPFC is unclear. Using multiple(More)
RATIONALE Behavioral flexibility is the ability to adjust behavior when environmental contingencies change and is compromised in disease states such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and following damage to the prefrontal cortex. METHODS The present study investigated the contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate GluN2B receptor(More)
When performing sequences of actions, we constantly keep track of our current position in the sequence relative to the overall goal. The present study searched for neural representations of sequence progression in corticostriatal circuits. Neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its target region in the dorsal striatum (DS) were recorded from(More)
Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen causing arthritis, respiratory disease and mastitis in cattle. A better understanding of its genetic features and evolution might represent evidences of surviving host environments. In this study, multiple factors influencing synonymous codon usage patterns in M. bovis (three strains' genomes) were analyzed. The overall(More)
The function of a given brain region is often defined by the coding properties of its individual neurons, yet how this information is combined at the ensemble level is an equally important consideration. We recorded multiple neurons from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsal striatum (DS) simultaneously as rats performed different sequences of(More)
This study aimed to explore whether antenatal supplement of taurine can improve the brain development of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) via protein kinase A (PKA)-Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/c-fos pathway. A total of 30 pregnant rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: control, IUGR, and(More)
The effect of time from diagnosis to treatment (TDT) on overall survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains obscure. Furthermore, whether chemotherapy delay impacts overall survival (OS) of patients with a special molecular subtype has not been investigated. Here, we enrolled 364 cases of AML to assess the effect of TDT on OS by(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The(More)
Apart from being associated with working memory, neu-rons in the rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are known to be involved in encoding of spatial and temporal contexts [1], the deduction of rules [2], and decision making [3]. The context-dependent organization of neural assemblies encoding for different task events, stimuli or decisions [3,4], may(More)
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