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This paper investigates the nature of the mismatch caused by culture-based differences in perceptions and expectations of L2 teaching and learning style preferences between Irish English teachers and Chinese students. A survey was conducted which included a questionnaire, interview and class observation at two language institutes in Dublin, Ireland. The(More)
Although organic light-emitting devices have been commercialized as flat panel displays since 1997, only singlet excitons were emitted. Full use of singlet and triplet excitons, electrophosphorescence, has attracted increasing attentions after the premier work made by Forrest, Thompson, and co-workers. In fact, red electrophosphorescent dye has already been(More)
An oligothiophene derivative named DR3TBDTT with high hydrophobicity was synthesized and functioned as the hole transporting material without an ion additive. 8.8% of power conversion efficiency was obtained for CH3NH3PbI3-xClx based planar solar cells with improved stability, compared to devices using Li-TFSI doped spiro-MeOTAD.
A mixed halide perovskite of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) is synthesized via two-step sequential solution deposition by using a mixture of PbCl2 and PbI2 as the precursor to overcome the low solubility of pure PbCl2 with easy morphology control. 11.7% power conversion efficiency is achieved for the mesoscopic cell, much higher than the cell constructed via a(More)
Recently, highly efficient solar cells based on organic-inorganic perovskites have been intensively reported for developing fabricating methods and device structures. Additional power conversion efficiency should be gained without increasing the thickness and the complexity of the devices to accord with practical applications. In this paper, a rough(More)
In the past two years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells has significantly increased up to 20.1%. These state-of-the-art new devices surpass other third-generation solar cells to become the most promising rival to the silicon-based solar cells. Since the morphology of the perovskite film is one of the(More)
Mitochondrial-targeting photosensitizers have been associated with effective photodynamic responses. However, most photosensitizers absorb light between 400 and 700 nm, where light penetration through tissues is limited. Two-photon excitation is a rational approach to improve light penetration through tissues. In this report, the two-photon photophysical(More)
In high performance perovskite based solar cells, CH3NH3PbI3 is the key material. We carried out a study on charge diffusion in spin-coated CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin film by transient fluorescent spectroscopy. A thickness-dependent fluorescent lifetime was found. By coating the film with an electron or hole transfer layer, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid(More)
Interfacial materials play a critical role in photoelectric conversion properties as well as the anomalous hysteresis phenomenon of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this article, a water-soluble polythiophene PTEBS was employed as a cathode interfacial material for PSCs. Efficient energy level aligning and improved film morphology were obtained due to(More)
The original version of this Article contained a typographical error in the Abstract. " Short diffusion distance of few hundreds of nanosecond was also observed in thin films. " now reads: " Short diffusion distance of few hundreds of nanometer was also observed in thin films. " This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. This(More)