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This paper investigates the nature of the mismatch caused by culture-based differences in perceptions and expectations of L2 teaching and learning style preferences between Irish English teachers and Chinese students. A survey was conducted which included a questionnaire, interview and class observation at two language institutes in Dublin, Ireland. The(More)
In high performance perovskite based solar cells, CH3NH3PbI3 is the key material. We carried out a study on charge diffusion in spin-coated CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin film by transient fluorescent spectroscopy. A thickness-dependent fluorescent lifetime was found. By coating the film with an electron or hole transfer layer, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid(More)
The original version of this Article contained a typographical error in the Abstract. " Short diffusion distance of few hundreds of nanosecond was also observed in thin films. " now reads: " Short diffusion distance of few hundreds of nanometer was also observed in thin films. " This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. This(More)
Vertical phase separation of the donor and the acceptor in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells is crucial to improve the exciton dissociation and charge transport efficiencies. This is because whilst the exciton diffusion length is limited, the organic film must be thick enough to absorb sufficient light. However, it is still a challenge to control the(More)
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