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Stem cell factor (SCF) is overexpressed by neurons following brain injury as well as by glioma cells; however, its role in gliomagenesis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that SCF directly activates brain microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and induces a potent angiogenic response in vivo. Primary human gliomas express SCF in a(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder. While neuronal deposition of alpha-synuclein serves as a pathological hallmark of PD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies, alpha-synuclein-positive protein aggregates are also present in astrocytes. The pathological consequence of astrocytic accumulation of alpha-synuclein, however, is(More)
α-Synuclein (α-syn) plays a prominent role in the degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, only a few studies on α-syn have been performed in the mDA neurons in vivo, which may be attributed to a lack of α-syn transgenic mice that develop PD-like severe degeneration of mDA neurons. To gain mechanistic(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies indicate that a simple alteration of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene expression may contribute to the etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the expression and regulation of LRRK2 protein in the sporadic PD brains remain to be determined. Here, we found that the expression of LRRK2 protein(More)
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) migration toward sites of damaged central nervous system (CNS) tissue may represent an adaptive response for the purpose of limiting and/or repairing damage. Little is known of the mechanisms responsible for this migratory response. We constructed a cDNA library of injured mouse forebrain using subtractive suppression(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI)-induced adverse effects have become a serious clinical problem. In addition to their metabolic and cardiovascular complications, these drugs also frequently cause severe gastrointestinal disorders, including mucosal erosions, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and diarrhea. However,(More)
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is enriched in the striatal projection neurons (SPNs). We found that LRRK2 negatively regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activity in the SPNs during synaptogenesis and in response to dopamine receptor Drd1 activation. LRRK2 interacted with PKA regulatory subunit IIβ (PKARIIβ). A lack of LRRK2 promoted the synaptic(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common degenerative movement disorder, is caused by a preferential loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Both α-synuclein (α-syn) missense and multiplication mutations have been linked to PD. However, the underlying intracellular signalling transduction pathways of α-syn-mediated mDA neurodegeneration remain(More)
Mounting evidence has demonstrated that the microenvironment of stem/progenitor cells plays an important role in their proliferation and commitment to their fate. However, it remains unclear how all elements, such as astrocytes, microglia, extracellular matrix molecules, soluble factors, and their cross-talk interactions in the microenvironments, affect(More)
Mutations in alpha-synuclein and Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are linked to autosomal dominant forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about any potential pathophysiological interplay between these two PD-related genes. Here we show in transgenic mice that although overexpression of LRRK2 alone did not cause neurodegeneration,(More)