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Among the pathogenic processes contributing to dopaminergic neuron (DN) death in Parkinson disease (PD), evidence points to non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, particularly chronic inflammation mounted by activated microglia. Yet little is known about endogenous regulatory processes that determine microglial actions in pathological states. We examined the role(More)
In mammalians, toll-like receptors (TLR) signal-transduction pathways induce the expression of a variety of immune-response genes, including inflammatory cytokines. It is therefore plausible to assume that TLRs are mediators in glial cells triggering the release of cytokines that ultimately kill DA neurons in the substantia nigra in Parkinson disease (PD).(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the human midbrain, which varies greatly among mesencephalic subregions. The genetic expression profiles of mesencephalic DA neurons particularly prone to degenerate during PD (nigrosome 1 within the substantia nigra pars compacta-SNpc) and those particularly resistant in the(More)
Lewy bodies (LB) are a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether LBs are neuroprotective, cytotoxic, or an age-related epiphenomenon is still debated. In the present study, the genetic fingerprints of mesencephalic dopaminergic (DA) neurons containing LBs versus mesencephalic DA neurons not containing LBs were compared in five PD patients.(More)
The study of postmortem human brain tissue remains the basis for the understanding of many CNS disorders and to verify data obtained in experimental studies. So far, however, gene expression profiling in cellular sub-populations derived from human postmortem brain was hampered by several technical drawbacks. Here, we describe a method that allows the(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation associated with microglial cell activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) is not only a consequence of neuronal degeneration, but may actively sustain dopaminergic (DA) cell loss over time. We aimed to study whether the intracellular chaperone heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60)(More)
Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive multipotent stem cell source with therapeutic applicability across diverse fields for the repair and regeneration of acute and chronically damaged tissues. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in ADSC for tissue engineering applications. However, the mechanisms underlying the(More)
Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is an enigmatic and aggressive tumor that has a worse prognosis and higher metastatic potential than its adenocarcinoma counterpart. Here we report that ASC tumors frequently harbor somatically acquired mutations in the UPF1 gene, which encodes the core component of the nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway.(More)
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly incident in southern China, where 40% of world's new cases arise each year. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load in nasopharyngeal (NP) brush/swab samples has gradually been established as a method for diagnosis of NPC. However, its applicable value in NPC diagnosis has never been investigated in southern(More)