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IDH1 and IDH2 mutations occur frequently in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia, leading to simultaneous loss and gain of activities in the production of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), respectively. Here we demonstrate that 2-HG is a competitive inhibitor of multiple α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the(More)
Viroids and most viral satellites have small, noncoding, and highly structured RNA genomes. How they cause disease symptoms without encoding proteins and why they have characteristic secondary structures are two longstanding questions. Recent studies have shown that both viroids and satellites are capable of inducing RNA silencing, suggesting a possible(More)
Two Krebs cycle genes, fumarate hydratase (FH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), are mutated in a subset of human cancers, leading to accumulation of their substrates, fumarate and succinate, respectively. Here we demonstrate that fumarate and succinate are competitive inhibitors of multiple α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenases, including histone(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, MAPKs are classified into four groups, designated A-D. Information about group C MAPKs is limited, and, in particular, no data from maize are available. In this article, we isolated a novel group C MAPK gene, ZmMPK7, from Zea mays. Exogenous(More)
The application and nutritional value of vegetable oil is highly dependent on its fatty acid composition, especially the relative proportion of its two major fatty acids, i.e oleic acid and linoleic acid. Microsomal oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase encoded by FAD2 gene is known to introduce a double bond at the Δ12 position of an oleic acid on(More)
This paper proposes a compiler-automated array compression scheme to reduce the memory bandwidth consumption of programs and thereby to improve their execution speed. Three encoding methods are developed for such compression. Formulas are derived to analyze the cost and benefit of such methods. To ease the programmer's effort for writing and maintaining(More)
The green alga Chlorella protothecoides has received considerable attention because it accumulates neutral triacylglycerols, commonly regarded as an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. In order to gain a better understanding of its metabolism, tracer experiments with [U-(13)C]/[1-(13)C]glucose were performed with heterotrophic growth of C.(More)
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors including pancreatic endocrine tumors and carcinoid tumors are uncommon neoplasms that have site-specific differences in clinicopathological features, clinical course and genetic alterations. The epigenetic alterations in these tumors are not well characterized. We therefore compared methylation of the(More)
Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are conserved four transmembrane-spanning proteins associated with recycling vesicular carriers. In mast cells, as in other cell types, SCAMPs 1 and 2 are present in secretory granule membranes and other intracellular membranes. We now demonstrate a population of these SCAMPs in plasma membranes. Although small,(More)