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IDH1 and IDH2 mutations occur frequently in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia, leading to simultaneous loss and gain of activities in the production of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), respectively. Here we demonstrate that 2-HG is a competitive inhibitor of multiple α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the(More)
Viroids and most viral satellites have small, noncoding, and highly structured RNA genomes. How they cause disease symptoms without encoding proteins and why they have characteristic secondary structures are two longstanding questions. Recent studies have shown that both viroids and satellites are capable of inducing RNA silencing, suggesting a possible(More)
A simple tissue culture protocol was developed for efficient plant regeneration from young inflorescence-derived calli in wild barley, Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link, an important pasturage grass. Genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the regenerated plants (regenerants) were assessed by three molecular markers AFLP, S-SAP and MSAP. Two pools of(More)
Two Krebs cycle genes, fumarate hydratase (FH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), are mutated in a subset of human cancers, leading to accumulation of their substrates, fumarate and succinate, respectively. Here we demonstrate that fumarate and succinate are competitive inhibitors of multiple α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenases, including histone(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, MAPKs are classified into four groups, designated A–D. Information about group C MAPKs is limited, and, in particular, no data from maize are available. In this article, we isolated a novel group C MAPK gene, ZmMPK7, from Zea mays. Exogenous(More)
SNAP receptor (SNARE)-mediated fusion is regarded as a core event in exocytosis. Exocytosis is supported by other proteins that set up SNARE interactions between secretory vesicle and plasma membranes or facilitate fusion pore formation. Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are candidate proteins for functioning in these events. In neuroendocrine(More)
The application and nutritional value of vegetable oil is highly dependent on its fatty acid composition, especially the relative proportion of its two major fatty acids, i.e oleic acid and linoleic acid. Microsomal oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase encoded by FAD2 gene is known to introduce a double bond at the Δ12 position of an oleic acid on(More)
Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors including pancreatic endocrine tumors and carcinoid tumors are uncommon neoplasms that have site-specific differences in clinicopathological features, clinical course and genetic alterations. The epigenetic alterations in these tumors are not well characterized. We therefore compared methylation of the(More)
In attempt to improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, a soybean DREB orthologue, GmDREB1, was introduced into alfalfa plants under the control of Arabidopsis Rd29A promoter. Its incorporation and expression in transgenic plants were confirmed by DNA and RNA gel-blot analyses. The level of salt tolerance of transgenic lines was(More)