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IDH1 and IDH2 mutations occur frequently in gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia, leading to simultaneous loss and gain of activities in the production of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), respectively. Here we demonstrate that 2-HG is a competitive inhibitor of multiple α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the(More)
Viroids and most viral satellites have small, noncoding, and highly structured RNA genomes. How they cause disease symptoms without encoding proteins and why they have characteristic secondary structures are two longstanding questions. Recent studies have shown that both viroids and satellites are capable of inducing RNA silencing, suggesting a possible(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, MAPKs are classified into four groups, designated A–D. Information about group C MAPKs is limited, and, in particular, no data from maize are available. In this article, we isolated a novel group C MAPK gene, ZmMPK7, from Zea mays. Exogenous(More)
Two Krebs cycle genes, fumarate hydratase (FH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), are mutated in a subset of human cancers, leading to accumulation of their substrates, fumarate and succinate, respectively. Here we demonstrate that fumarate and succinate are competitive inhibitors of multiple α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenases, including histone(More)
A simple tissue culture protocol was developed for efficient plant regeneration from young inflorescence-derived calli in wild barley, Hordeum brevisubulatum (Trin.) Link, an important pasturage grass. Genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the regenerated plants (regenerants) were assessed by three molecular markers AFLP, S-SAP and MSAP. Two pools of(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of fluid resuscitation as guided by lactate clearance rate (LCR) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in patients with sepsis. METHODS A prospective randomized control study was conducted. Fifty patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock from January 2011 to February 2012 in department of critical care(More)
The application and nutritional value of vegetable oil is highly dependent on its fatty acid composition, especially the relative proportion of its two major fatty acids, i.e oleic acid and linoleic acid. Microsomal oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase encoded by FAD2 gene is known to introduce a double bond at the Δ12 position of an oleic acid on(More)
The V-shaped hair bundles atop auditory hair cells and their uniform orientation are manifestations of epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP) required for proper perception of sound. PCP is regulated at the tissue level by a conserved core Wnt/PCP pathway. However, the hair cell-intrinsic polarity machinery is poorly understood. Recent findings implicate(More)
This paper proposes a compiler-automated array compression scheme to reduce the memory bandwidth consumption of programs and thereby to improve their execution speed. Three encoding methods are developed for such compression. Formulas are derived to analyze the cost and benefit of such methods. To ease the programmer's effort for writing and maintaining(More)