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UNLABELLED Several papers have been published where nonlinear machine learning algorithms, e.g. artificial neural networks, support vector machines and decision trees, have been used to model the specificity of the HIV-1 protease and extract specificity rules. We show that the dataset used in these studies is linearly separable and that it is a misuse of(More)
HIV-1 protease has a broad and complex substrate specificity, which hitherto has escaped a simple comprehensive definition. This, and the relatively high mutation rate of the retroviral protease, makes it challenging to design effective protease inhibitors. Several attempts have been made during the last two decades to elucidate the enigmatic cleavage(More)
Rapidly developing viral resistance to licensed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors is an increasing problem in the treatment of HIV-infected individuals and AIDS patients. A rational design of more effective protease inhibitors and discovery of potential biological substrates for the HIV-1 protease require accurate models for(More)
BACKGROUND Proteases of human pathogens are becoming increasingly important drug targets, hence it is necessary to understand their substrate specificity and to interpret this knowledge in practically useful ways. New methods are being developed that produce large amounts of cleavage information for individual proteases and some have been applied to extract(More)
Peptide binding to HLA molecules is a critical step in induction and regulation of T-cell mediated immune responses. Because of combinatorial complexity of immune responses, systematic studies require combination of computational methods and experimentation. Most of available computational predictions are based on discriminating binders from non-binders(More)
A major challenge in the development of peptide-based vaccines is finding the right immunogenic element, with efficient and long-lasting immunization effects, from large potential targets encoded by pathogen genomes. Computer models are convenient tools for scanning pathogen genomes to preselect candidate immunogenic peptides for experimental validation.(More)
We review past work for predicting and understanding HIV protease function, using both machine learning algorithms and other classification algorithms. We show that the best algorithm for solving the task is the simple Perceptron, which has never before been applied to this problem. The simple Perceptron is efficient because the peptide data set is linearly(More)
Motivation: Understanding the substrate specificity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease is important when designing effective HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Furthermore, characterizing and predicting the cleavage profile of HIV-1 protease is essential to generate and test hypotheses of how HIV-1 affects proteins of the human host. Currently(More)
MOTIVATION Understanding the substrate specificity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease is important when designing effective HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Furthermore, characterizing and predicting the cleavage profile of HIV-1 protease is essential to generate and test hypotheses of how HIV-1 affects proteins of the human host. Currently(More)
An analysis of biobasis function neural networks is presented, which shows that the similarity metric used is a linear function and that bio-basis function neural networks therefore often end up being just linear classifiers in high dimensional spaces. This is a consequence of four things: the linearity of the distance measure, the normalization of the(More)
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