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—Silicon fusion and eutectic bonding processes based on the technique of localized heating have been successfully demonstrated. Phosphorus-doped polysilicon and gold films are applied separately in the silicon-to-glass fusion bonding and silicon-to-gold eutectic bonding experiments. These films are patterned as line-shape resistive heaters with widths of 5(More)
—A combination of surface-and bulk-micromachining techniques is used to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating microhypodermic needles. These microneedles, which may be built with on-board fluid pumps, have potential applications in the chemical and biomedical fields for localized chemical analysis, programmable drug-delivery systems, and very small,(More)
A method of active frequency tuning on comb-shape micro resonators has been successfully demonstrated by means of localized stressing effects. A mechanical beam structure that can be resistively heated to generate thermal stress, is integrated as part of the comb-shape micro resonator for frequency tuning. Experimentally, a frequency change up to 6.5% is(More)
This paper presents two types of fuel cells: a miniature microbial fuel cell (µMFC) and a miniature photosynthetic electrochemical cell (µPEC). A bulk micromachining process is used to fabricate the fuel cells, and the prototype has an active proton exchange membrane area of 1 cm 2. Two different microorganisms are used as biocatalysts in the anode: (1)(More)
Polymeric microneedles fabricated by micro-injection molding techniques have been demonstrated using Topas Ò COC as the molding plastic material. Open-channel microneedles with cross-sectional area of 100 lm · 100 lm were designed and fabricated on top of a shank of 4.7 mm in length, 0.6 mm in width, and 0.5 mm in depth. The tip of the microneedle has a(More)
—Microrelays with liquid metal wetted contacts have been demonstrated using bidirectional electrothermal electromagnetic actuators. These relays were fabricated with the MetalMUMPs foundry process, which has a 20-µm-thick nickel structural layer. The operating voltage is under 0.5 V. The measured breakdown voltage and OFF-state resistance are greater than(More)