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Mammalian cell entry proteins (Mces) contribute to Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. A mce homologue has been identified in the Leptospira interrogans genome, but its function was unknown. We showed that the mce gene is expressed only by pathogenic Leptospira strains tested. Leptospiral mce mRNA and Mce protein levels increased during infection of(More)
To investigate the implications of the unique properties of fullerenes on their interaction with and passive transport into lipid membranes, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of a C60 fullerene in a fully hydrated di-myristoyl-phoshatidylcholine lipid membrane have been carried out. In these simulations the free energy and the diffusivity of the(More)
We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of C60 fullerenes inside a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer and an alkane melt. Simulations reveal that the preferred position of a single C60 fullerene is about 6-7 A off of the center plane, allowing the fullerene to take advantage of strong dispersion interactions with denser(More)
Under the guidance of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP), (1, 2) we conducted a systematic survey of the expression status of genes located at human chromosome 20 (Chr.20) in three cancer tissues, gastric, colon, and liver carcinoma, and their representative cell lines. We have globally profiled proteomes in these samples with combined(More)
Interaction of the urokinase receptor (uPAR) with its binding partners such as the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) at the cell surface triggers a series of proteolytic and signaling events that promote invasion and metastasis. Here, we report the discovery of a small molecule (IPR-456) and its derivatives that inhibit the tight uPAR·uPA(More)
Leptospirosis, caused by different Leptospira species, is one of the most widespread zoonotic infections worldwide. Here we expressed three major leptospiral lipoproteins and examined their immunogenicity. All the pathogenic Leptospira strains tested possess the lipL21, lipL32 and lipL41 genes, but the latter two can be further divided into different gene(More)
The catabolite activator protein is a dimer that consists of two cAMP-binding subunits, each containing a C-terminus DNA-binding module and a N-terminus ligand binding domain. The system is well-known to exhibit negative cooperativity, whereby the binding of one cAMP molecule reduces the binding affinity of the other cAMP molecule by 2 orders of magnitude,(More)
Compounds designed solely based on structure often do not result in any improvement of the binding affinity because of entropy-enthalpy compensation. Thermodynamic data along with structure provide an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of this effect and aid in the refinement of scoring functions used in computational drug design. Here, we scoured(More)
Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a transpeptidase involved in protein cross-linking through generation of ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bonds. It also promotes cell adhesion through interaction with fibronectin and facilitates formation of fibronectin-integrin complexes. This interaction is involved in tumor cell adhesion to the matrix and in the process(More)