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Appropriately regulated gene expression requires a suitable promoter. A number of promoters have been isolated and shown to be functional in plants, but only a few of them activate transcription of transgenes at high levels constitutively. We report here the cloning and characterization of a novel, constitutively expressed promoter isolated from Cestrum(More)
The transport of a viral genome from cell to cell is enabled by movement proteins (MPs) targeting the cell periphery to mediate the gating of plasmodesmata. Given their essential role in the development of viral infection, understanding the regulation of MPs is of great importance. Here, we show that cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) MP contains three(More)
The function of the virion-associated protein (VAP) of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) has long been only poorly understood. VAP is associated with the virion but is dispensable for virus morphogenesis and replication. It mediates virus transmission by aphids through simultaneous interaction with both the aphid transmission factor and the virion. However,(More)
ABSTRACT Eight turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV) isolates from the Campania region of Italy were characterized. Experiments based on host range and symptomatology indicated that the isolates were biologically different. In addition, the isolates, with the exception of ITA1 and ITA3, were distinguished from each other by using a combination of monoclonal(More)
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) open reading frame III (ORF III) codes for a virion-associated protein (Vap), which is one of two viral proteins essential for aphid transmission. However, unlike the aphid transmission factor encoded by CaMV ORF II, Vap is also essential for systemic infection, suggesting that it is a multifunctional protein. To elucidate(More)
Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we show that the ORF III product of cauliflower mosaic virus (pIII) interacts through its C-terminus with the viral coat protein. The last five amino acids of pIII were essential for the interaction and virus infectivity. Deletion of the last three amino acids or the mutation F129A decreased the strength of the interaction(More)
All plant pararetroviruses belong to the Caulimoviridae family. This family contains six genera of viruses with different biological, serological, and molecular characteristics. Although some important mechanisms of viral replication and host infection are understood, much remains to be discovered about the many functions of the viral proteins. The focus of(More)
Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata (PD) either as nucleoprotein complexes (NPCs) or as tubule-guided encapsidated particles with the help of movement proteins (MPs). To explore how and why MPs specialize in one mechanism or the other, we tested the exchangeability of MPs encoded by DNA and RNA virus genomes by means of an engineered alfalfa mosaic(More)
Plant virus genomes cross the barrier of the host cell wall and move to neighboring cells either in the form of nucleoprotein complex or encapsidated into virions. Virus transport is facilitated by virus-encoded movement proteins (MP), which are different from one another in number, size, sequence, and in the strategy used to overcome the size exclusion(More)