Livia Garzetti

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OBJECTIVE Microvesicles (MVs) have been indicated as important mediators of intercellular communication and are emerging as new biomarkers of tissue damage. Our previous data indicate that reactive microglia/macrophages release MVs in vitro. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether MVs are released by microglia/macrophages in vivo and whether their(More)
CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been considered crucial in controlling immune system homeostasis, and their derangement is often associated to autoimmunity. Tregs identification is, however, difficult because most markers, including CD25 and Foxp3, are shared by recently activated T cells. We show in this paper that CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells are(More)
Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is the only anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-17 family, and it has been shown to be efficacious in inhibiting neuroinflammation. Known for its effects on cells of the adaptive immune system, it has been more recently described to be effective also on cells of the innate immune system, namely macrophages. We used a(More)
MVs are known vehicles of horizontal communication among cells, currently under scrutiny as powerful biomarkers in several pathological processes. The potential advantage of MVs relies on the assumption that their content reflects processes ongoing in pathologically relevant cell types. We have described that MVs of myeloid origin in the CSF are a marker of(More)
HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infects CD4(+) T lymphocytes and tissue macrophages. Infected macrophages differ from T cells in terms of decreased to absent cytopathicity and for active accumulation of new progeny HIV-1 virions in virus-containing compartments (VCC). For these reasons, infected macrophages are believed to act as "Trojan horses" carrying infectious(More)
Microvesicles are a recently described way of cell communication that has been implicated in a number of biological processes, including neuroinflammation. Widely investigated as biomarkers in oncology and neurological disorders, little is known of the role of microvesicles in the pathogenesis of diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Several evidences(More)
Myeloid cells, such as macrophages and microglia, play a crucial role in neuroinflammation and have been recently identified as a novel therapeutic target, especially for chronic forms. The general aim would be to change the phenotype of myeloid cells from pro- to anti-inflammatory, favoring their tissue-trophic and regenerative functions. Myeloid cells,(More)
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