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Galanin is an endogenous neuropeptide that modulates seizures in the brain. Because this neuropeptide does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, we designed truncated galanin analogues in which nonessential amino acid residues were replaced by cationic and/or lipoamino acid residues. The analogues prevented seizures in the 6 Hz mouse model of epilepsy(More)
The endogenous neuropeptide galanin and its associated receptors galanin receptor 1 and galanin receptor 2 are highly localized in brain limbic structures and play an important role in the control of seizures in animal epilepsy models. As such, galanin receptors provide an attractive target for the development of novel anticonvulsant drugs. Our efforts to(More)
There are ongoing efforts to develop pain therapeutics with novel mechanisms of action that avoid common side effects associated with other analgesics. The anticonvulsant neuropeptide galanin is a potent regulator of neuronal excitability and has a well established role in pain modulation, making it a potential target for novel therapies. Our previous(More)
Delivery of neuropeptides into the central and/or peripheral nervous systems supports development of novel neurotherapeutics for the treatment of pain, epilepsy and other neurological diseases. Our previous work showed that the combination of lipidization and cationization applied to anticonvulsant neuropeptides galanin (GAL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)(More)
Introduction of lipoamino acid (LAA), Lys-palmitoyl, and cationization into a series of galanin analogues yielded systemically active anticonvulsant compounds. To study the relationship between the LAA structure and anticonvulsant activity, orthogonally protected LAAs were synthesized in which the Lys side chain was coupled to fatty acids varying in length(More)
Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous neuropeptide involved in a variety of central and peripheral neuromodulatory effects. Herein we show the effects of site-specific glycosylation on the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of this neuropeptide. NT analogues containing O-linked disaccharides (beta-melibiose and alpha-TF antigen) or beta-lactose(More)
The neuropeptides galanin (GAL), neuropeptide Y (NPY) or neurotensin (NT) exhibit anticonvulsant activities mediated by their respective receptors in the brain. To transform these peptides into potential neurotherapeutics, their systemic bioavailability and metabolic stability must be improved. Our recent studies with GAL analogs suggested that an(More)
OBJECTIVE Potential clinical utility of galanin or peptidic analogs has been hindered by poor metabolic stability, lack of brain penetration, and hyperglycemia due to galanin receptor subtype 1 (GalR1) activation. NAX 810-2, a galanin receptor subtype 2 (GalR2)-preferring galanin analog, possesses 15-fold greater affinity for GalR2 over GalR1 and protects(More)
Neurotensin receptors have been studied as molecular targets for the treatment of pain, schizophrenia, addiction, or cancer. Neurotensin (NT) and Contulakin-G, a glycopeptide isolated from a predatory cone snail Conus geographus, share a sequence similarity at the C-terminus, which is critical for activation of neurotensin receptors. Both peptides are(More)
Conjugated polyamines are potential carriers for biotherapeutics targeting the central nervous system. We describe an efficient synthesis of a polyamine-based amino acid, lysine-trimethylene(diNosyl)-spermine(triBoc) with Dde or Fmoc orthogonal protecting groups. This nonnatural amino acid was incorporated into a neurotensin analogue using standard(More)