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Apoptosis is the main form of β-cell death in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are 2 major pathways leading to apoptosis, 'intrinsic and extrinsic pathways'. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, which plays an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. The main aims of this study were to investigate related apoptotic pathways in diabetes and the(More)
Previous studies have indicated that 4‑hydroxyisoleucine (4‑HIL) improves insulin resistance, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying how 4‑HIL improves insulin resistance in hepatocytes were examined. HepG2 cells were co‑cultured with insulin and a high glucose concentration to(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) is highly correlated with soluble tumor necrosis factor-α (sTNF-α), which is released from transmembranous TNF-α by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE). In vivo, TACE activity is suppressed by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3). Agents that can interact with TACE/TIMP3 to improve obesity-related(More)
INTRODUCTION/AIMS Hydroxyisoleucine (4-HIL), derived from fenugreek seeds, improves insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. However, the effects of 4-HIL on liver glycogen synthesis and hepatic insulin resistance have not been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 4-HIL on glycogen synthesis in a tumor necrosis(More)
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