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Cell surface reception of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) must ensure that the graded morphogenic signal is interpreted accordingly in neighboring cells to specify tissue patterns during development. Here, we report endocytic sorting signals for the receptor Patched1 (Ptch1), comprising two 'PPXY' motifs, that direct it to degradation in lysosomes. These signals are(More)
Promoting the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins by inhibiting Hsp90, an important protein chaperone, has been shown to be a promising new anticancer strategy. In this study, we show that an oxazoline analogue of apratoxin A (oz-apraA), a cyclodepsipeptide isolated from a marine cyanobacterium, promotes the degradation of Hsp90 clients through(More)
3 SUMMARY The complexity of canonical Wnt signaling comes not only from the numerous components, but also from multiple post-translational modifications. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common modifications that propagate signals from extracellular stimuli to downstream effectors. To investigate the global phosphorylation regulation and uncover(More)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is tightly regulated at the level of post-translational modification to transmit quantitative difference in ligand concentration into proportional transcriptional output. Ubiquitination is one such modification with several E3 ubiquitin ligases implicated in TGF-β signaling in marking crucial pathway components(More)
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