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Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors and individuals who suffer from multiple sclerosis. In previous published experiments we have shown that Direct Current (DC), when used to lesion nerves, can attenuate muscle force in a gradual manner, and this(More)
BACKGROUND . More than 150 000 neuroprostheses (NPs) have been implanted in people to restore bodily function in a variety of neural disorders. The authors developed a novel NP, the Stimulus Router System (SRS), in which only passive leads are implanted. Each lead picks up a portion of the current delivered through the skin by an external stimulator. (More)
OBJECT It has been over a decade since the introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System into surgery. Since then, technology has been advancing at an exponential rate, and newer surgical robots are becoming increasingly sophisticated, which could greatly impact the performance of surgery. NeuroArm is one such robotic system. METHODS Clinical integration(More)
BACKGROUND A prerequisite for the successful design and use of robots in neurosurgery is knowledge of the forces exerted by surgeons during neurosurgical procedures. The aim of the present cadaver study was to measure the surgical instrument forces exerted during microneurosurgery. METHODS An experimental apparatus was set up consisting of a platform for(More)
OBJECTIVE Knowledge of tool-tissue interaction is mostly taught and learned in a qualitative manner because a means to quantify the technical aspects of neurosurgery is currently lacking. Neurosurgeons typically require years of hands-on experience, together with multiple initial trial and error, to master the optimal force needed during the performance of(More)
Neural prostheses are electronic stimulators that activate nerves to restore sensory or motor functions. Implanted neural prostheses receive command signals and in some cases energy to recharge their batteries through the skin by telemetry. Here, we describe a new approach that eliminates the implanted stimulator. Stimulus pulse trains are passed between(More)
Various types of neural prostheses (NPs) have been developed to restore motor function after neural injury. Surface NPs are noninvasive and inexpensive, but are often poorly selective, activating nontargeted muscles and cutaneous sensory nerves that can cause discomfort or pain. Implantable NPs are highly selective, but invasive and costly. The stimulus(More)
BACKGROUND The treatment of glioma remains a significant challenge with high recurrence rates, morbidity, and mortality. Merging image guided robotic technology with microsurgery adds a new dimension as they relate to surgical ergonomics, patient safety, precision, and accuracy. METHODS An image-guided robot, called neuroArm, has been integrated into the(More)
OBJECTIVE Surgical resection of a brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) poses a technical challenge due to the fragility and number of small feeding and draining vessels around the nidus. Acquiring knowledge of optimal force applied to such tissue is important in surgical performance and education. METHODS A force sensing bipolar forceps was developed(More)
Understanding the amount of forces exerted to the brain tissue during the performance of surgical tasks in neurosurgery is critical for educating trainees. Quantifying such forces can help trainees gain important information about the appropriate amount of force required to safely, yet effectively, complete microsurgical tasks. This paper reports the amount(More)