Liu Shi Gan

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BACKGROUND A prerequisite for the successful design and use of robots in neurosurgery is knowledge of the forces exerted by surgeons during neurosurgical procedures. The aim of the present cadaver study was to measure the surgical instrument forces exerted during microneurosurgery. METHODS An experimental apparatus was set up consisting of a platform for(More)
Neural prostheses are electronic stimulators that activate nerves to restore sensory or motor functions. Implanted neural prostheses receive command signals and in some cases energy to recharge their batteries through the skin by telemetry. Here, we describe a new approach that eliminates the implanted stimulator. Stimulus pulse trains are passed between(More)
OBJECTIVE Knowledge of tool-tissue interaction is mostly taught and learned in a qualitative manner because a means to quantify the technical aspects of neurosurgery is currently lacking. Neurosurgeons typically require years of hands-on experience, together with multiple initial trial and error, to master the optimal force needed during the performance of(More)
Various types of neural prostheses (NPs) have been developed to restore motor function after neural injury. Surface NPs are noninvasive and inexpensive, but are often poorly selective, activating nontargeted muscles and cutaneous sensory nerves that can cause discomfort or pain. Implantable NPs are highly selective, but invasive and costly. The stimulus(More)
BACKGROUND The treatment of glioma remains a significant challenge with high recurrence rates, morbidity, and mortality. Merging image guided robotic technology with microsurgery adds a new dimension as they relate to surgical ergonomics, patient safety, precision, and accuracy. METHODS An image-guided robot, called neuroArm, has been integrated into the(More)
The use of robotic technology in the surgical treatment of brain tumour promises increased precision and accuracy in the performance of surgery. Robotic manipulators may allow superior access to narrow surgical corridors compared to freehand or conventional neurosurgery. This paper reports values and ranges of tool-tissue interaction forces during the(More)
The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and applicability of an advanced cranial navigation setup. Therefore, continuous electromagnetic instrument navigation was employed in 136 neurosurgical cases using a standard navig a-tion system. A phantom head in an intraoperative MRI environment was used to compare the accuracy of the advanced to the(More)
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