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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
We report on the quality of a whole-genome assembly of Drosophila melanogaster and the nature of the computer algorithms that accomplished it. Three independent external data sources essentially agree with and support the assembly's sequence and ordering of contigs across the euchromatic portion of the genome. In addition, there are isolated contigs that we(More)
The ability to control integration, inheritance, and expression of multiple transgenes is a prerequisite for manipulating biosynthetic pathways and complex agronomic characteristics in plants. One hundred and twenty-five independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated after cobombarding embryogenic tissues with a mixture of 14 different pUC-based(More)
The rice Xa21 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae in a race-specific manner. Analysis of the inheritance patterns and resistance spectra of transgenic plants carrying six Xa21 gene family members indicated that one member, designated Xa21D, displayed a resistance spectrum identical to that observed for Xa21 but conferred only partial(More)
The B7 family members B7-1 and B7-2 interact with CD28 and constitute an essential T-cell co-stimulatory pathway in the initiation of antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune response. Here, we describe a third member of the B7 family, called B7-H1 that does not bind CD28, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte A4 or ICOS (inducible co-stimulator). Ligation of(More)
Fragile X syndrome is the most prevalent cause of mental retardation. It is usually caused by the transcriptional inactivation of the FMR-1 gene. Although the cognitive defect is the most recognized symptom of fragile X syndrome, patients also show behavioral problems such as hyperarousal, hyperactivity, autism, aggression, anxiety and increased sensitivity(More)
Comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 5 breast cancer cell lines and 33 primary tumors to discover and map regions of the genome with increased DNA-sequence copy-number. Two-thirds of primary tumors and almost all cell lines showed increased DNA-sequence copy-number affecting a total of 26 chromosomal subregions. Most of these loci were distinct(More)
To elucidate the complete gene structure and to identify new genes involved in the development of HLA class I antigen-associated diseases in the class I region of the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6, a YAC clone (745D12) covering the 146-kb segment around the IkBL and MICA loci was isolated from a YAC library constructed from the(More)
The inhibitory activity of tea against tumorigenesis has been demonstrated in many animal models and has been suggested by some epidemiological studies. Such activity has generally been attributed to tea catechins. To understand the bioavailability of tea catechins in humans, we gave 18 individuals different amounts of green tea and measured the(More)
Tea has been shown to inhibit chemically induced tumorigenesis in many animal models, but the effects of tea consumption on human carcinogenesis are not conclusive. In order to develop biomarkers for tea consumption, we developed methods for the analysis of tea polyphenols in human plasma and urine samples using HPLC with the coulochem electrode array(More)