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It has been proposed that differential activation kinetics allows cells to use a common set of signaling pathways to specify distinct cellular outcomes. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce different activation kinetics of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and result in differentiation and proliferation,(More)
The photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) has become a powerful optogenetic tool that allows light-inducible manipulation of various signaling pathways and cellular processes in mammalian cells with high spatiotemporal precision and ease of application. However, it has also been shown that the behavior of CRY2 under blue light is complex, as the photoexcited(More)
Intracellular transport and distribution of organelles play important roles in diverse cellular functions, including cell polarization, intracellular signaling, cell survival, and apoptosis. Here, we report an optogenetic strategy to control the transport and distribution of organelles by light. This is achieved by optically recruiting molecular motors onto(More)
Acute brain injuries such as ischemic stroke or traumatic brain injury often cause massive neural death and irreversible brain damage with grave consequences. Previous studies have established that a key participant in the events leading to neural death is the excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Protecting neuronal cells by activating their(More)
Gold-directed polypyrrole (PPy) nanoarrays are fabricated by hydrogel-assisted nanotransfer edge printing (HnTEP) and electrochemical polymerization. Gold nanoarrays are fabricated through the HnTEP method, which involves metal deposition, hydrogel etching, and nanotransfer edge printing. By utilizing the well-positioned gold nanostructures, PPy nanoarrays(More)
The interface between cells and nonbiological surfaces regulates cell attachment, chronic tissue responses, and ultimately the success of medical implants or biosensors. Clinical and laboratory studies show that topological features of the surface profoundly influence cellular responses; for example, titanium surfaces with nano- and microtopographical(More)
Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) can simultaneously undergo light-dependent CRY2-CRY2 homo-oligomerization and CRY2-CIB1 hetero-dimerization, both of which have been widely used to optically control intracellular processes. Applications using CRY2-CIB1 interaction desire minimal CRY2 homo-oligomerization to avoid unintended complications, while those(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe the eff ect and mechanism of chronic high-fat diet on predation behavior in rats. METHODS Ten female SD rats with 4-week-old were randomly divided into a normal control group (NC group, n=5) and a chronic high-fat diet group (HF group, n=5). The rats in the NC group received the regular diet while rats in the HF group were fed with(More)
An ultralow-limit gas microsensor based on an ultrathin conducting oligoaniline film integrated with microscale gold electrodes is developed. A nanoscale oligoaniline film is fabricated on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrate using graft polymerization using FeCl(3) , a mild oxidant, rather than conventional (NH(4) )(2) S(2) O(8) . The as-fabricated(More)
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