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In 1961, Jacob and Monod proposed the operon model for gene regulation based on metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli. This proposal was followed by an explication of allosteric behavior by Monod and colleagues. The operon model rationally depicted how genetic mechanisms can control metabolic events in response to environmental stimuli via coordinated(More)
LacI/GalR transcription regulators have extensive, non-conserved interfaces between their regulatory domains and the 18 amino acids that serve as 'linkers' to their DNA-binding domains. These non-conserved interfaces might contribute to functional differences between paralogs. Previously, two chimeras created by domain recombination displayed novel(More)
In protein families, conserved residues often contribute to a common general function, such as DNA-binding. However, unique attributes for each homolog (e.g. recognition of alternative DNA sequences) must arise from variation in other functionally-important positions. The locations of these "specificity determinant" positions are obscured amongst the(More)
The lactose repressor protein (LacI) was among the very first genetic regulatory proteins discovered, and more than 1000 members of the bacterial LacI/GalR family are now identified. LacI has been the prototype for understanding how transcription is controlled using small metabolites to modulate protein association with specific DNA sites. This(More)
The crystal structures of lactose repressor protein (LacI) provide static endpoint views of the allosteric transition between DNA- and IPTG-bound states. To obtain an atom-by-atom description of the pathway between these two conformations, motions were simulated with targeted molecular dynamics (TMD). Strikingly, this homodimer exhibited asymmetric(More)
One emphasis of the Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics is the value of thermodynamic measurements for understanding behaviors of biological systems. In this study, the correlation between thermodynamic measurements of in vitro DNA binding affinity with in vivo transcription repression was investigated for two transcription repressors. In the first(More)
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor proton-deuterium exchange rates (kobs) for more than 30 residues in turkey ovomucoid third domain. To test whether exchange is governed by global unfolding, rates were measured over a wide range of pH and temperatures where the change in the free energy of unfolding (delta(More)
We present here the results of a series of small-angle X-ray scattering studies aimed at understanding the role of conformational changes and structural flexibility in DNA binding and allosteric signaling in a bacterial transcription regulator, lactose repressor protein (LacI). Experiments were designed to detect possible conformational changes that occur(More)
Homologue function can be differentiated by changing residues that affect binding sites or long-range interactions. LacI and PurR are two proteins that represent the LacI/GalR family (>500 members) of bacterial transcription regulators. All members have distinct DNA-binding and regulatory domains linked by approximately 18 amino acids. Each homologue has(More)
In prokaryotes, the construction of synthetic, multi-input promoters is constrained by the number of transcription factors that can simultaneously regulate a single promoter. This fundamental engineering constraint is an obstacle to synthetic biologists because it limits the computational capacity of engineered gene circuits. Here, we demonstrate that(More)