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N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors constitute a major subtype of glutamate receptors at extrasynaptic sites that link multiple intracellular catabolic processes responsible for irreversible neuronal death. Here, we report that cerebral ischemia recruits death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) into the NMDA receptor NR2B protein complex in the cortex of(More)
The targeting and surface expression of membrane proteins are critical to their functions. In neurons, synaptic targeting and surface expression of AMPA-type glutamate receptors were found to be critical for synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTD). PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) is a cytosolic protein(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G) act by blocking synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Whether BoNTs disrupt additional neuronal functions has not been addressed. Here we report that cleavage of syntaxin 1 by BoNT/C, and cleavage of SNAP-25 by BoNT/E both induce degeneration of neurons. Furthermore, although SNAP-25 cleaved by BoNT/A still supports neuron survival,(More)
α-synuclein (α-syn) is a main component of Lewy bodies (LB) that occur in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with LB (DLB) and multi-system atrophy. α-syn mutations or amplifications are responsible for a subset of autosomal dominant familial PD cases, and overexpression causes neurodegeneration and motor(More)
Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase) is an industrially important enzyme produced by a large number of fungi, which hydrolyzes the ester and depside bonds of gallotannins and gallic acid esters. In the present work, a tannase from Aspergillus oryzae has been cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme was assayed. A(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) include seven bacterial toxins (BoNT/A-G) that target presynaptic terminals and act as proteases cleaving proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Here we identified synaptic vesicle protein SV2 as the protein receptor for BoNT/D. BoNT/D enters cultured hippocampal neurons via synaptic vesicle recycling and can bind(More)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), the most potent toxins known, act by cleaving three SNARE proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Previous studies on BoNTs have generally utilized the major SNARE homologues expressed in brain (VAMP2, syntaxin 1, and SNAP-25). However, BoNTs target peripheral motor neurons and cause death by paralyzing(More)
The Kir6.1 channels are a subtype of ATP-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium (K(ATP)) channels that play an essential role in coupling the cell's metabolic events to electrical activity. In this study, we show that functional Kir6.1 channels are located at excitatory pre-synaptic terminals as a complex with type-1 Sulfonylurea receptors (SUR1) in the(More)
ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels that are gated by intracellular ATP/ADP concentrations are a unique subtype of potassium channels and play an essential role in coupling intracellular metabolic events to electrical activity. Opening of K(ATP) channels during energy deficits in the CNS induces efflux of potassium ions and in turn hyperpolarizes neurons.(More)
A Chinese Herbal Formula (CHF) has acquired a certain therapeutic effect on chronic HBV infection. To assess the efficacy and safety of CHF on HBV replication in chronic HBV carriers, we performed a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial involving patients from 16 centers. A total of 300 confirmed chronic HBV carriers were randomized at(More)