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A novel iterative procedure is described that allows both the orientation and dynamics of internuclear bond vectors to be determined from direct interpretation of NMR dipolar couplings, measured under at least three orthogonal alignment conditions. If five orthogonal alignments are available, the approach also yields information on the degree of motional(More)
Site-specific (15)N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors have been derived for the well-ordered backbone amide (15)N nuclei in the B3 domain of protein G (GB3) from residual chemical shift anisotropy (RCSA) measured in six different mutants that retain the native structure but align differently relative to the static magnetic field when dissolved in a(More)
Quantitative interpretation of 15N NMR relaxation rates in terms of motion hinges on the value of the 15N-1H internuclear distance. Neutron diffraction of small model peptides suggested a value of 1.020-1.024 Å. From an NMR relaxation perspective, spectral density terms resulting from ultrafast motions such as zero-point librations do not significantly(More)
Site-specific (1)H chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors have been derived for the well-ordered backbone amide moieties in the B3 domain of protein G (GB3). Experimental input data include residual chemical shift anisotropy (RCSA), measured in six mutants that align differently relative to the static magnetic field when dissolved in a liquid crystalline(More)
The ability to design thermostable proteins offers enormous potential for the development of novel protein bioreagents. In this work, a combined computational and experimental method was developed to increase the T m of the flavin mononucleotide based fluorescent protein Bacillus Subtilis YtvA LOV domain by 31 Celsius, thus extending its applicability in(More)
The liquid crystalline phase consisting of the potassium salt of the dinucleotide d(GpG) is compatible with detergents commonly used for solubilizing membrane proteins, including dodecylphosphocholine, the lysolipid 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and small bicelles consisting of dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine and dimyristoyl(More)
Effects of superficial gas velocity and top clearance on gas holdup, liquid circulation velocity, mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient are investigated in a new airlift loop photobioreactor (PBR), and empirical models for its rational control and scale-up are proposed. In addition, the impact of top clearance on hydrodynamics, especially on the gas(More)
Although collective dynamics of atom groups steer many biologically relevant processes in biomacromolecules, most atomic resolution motional studies focus on isolated bonds. In this study, a new method is introduced to assess correlated dynamics between bond vectors by cross relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Dipole-dipole cross correlated(More)
The catalytic mechanism of Bacillus subtilis guanine deaminase (bGD), a Zn metalloenzyme, has been investigated by a combination of quantum mechanical calculations using the multilayered ONIOM method and molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast to a previously proposed catalytic mechanism, which requires the bound guanine to assume a rare tautomeric(More)