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A novel iterative procedure is described that allows both the orientation and dynamics of internuclear bond vectors to be determined from direct interpretation of NMR dipolar couplings, measured under at least three orthogonal alignment conditions. If five orthogonal alignments are available, the approach also yields information on the degree of motional(More)
The ability to design thermostable proteins offers enormous potential for the development of novel protein bioreagents. In this work, a combined computational and experimental method was developed to increase the T m of the flavin mononucleotide based fluorescent protein Bacillus Subtilis YtvA LOV domain by 31 Celsius, thus extending its applicability in(More)
The complete path for the deamination reaction catalyzed by yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD), a zinc metalloenzyme of significant biomedical interest, has been investigated using the ONIOM method. Cytosine deamination proceeds via a sequential mechanism involving the protonation of N(3), the nucleophilic attack of C(4) by the zinc-coordinated hydroxide, and(More)
The liquid crystalline phase consisting of the potassium salt of the dinucleotide d(GpG) is compatible with detergents commonly used for solubilizing membrane proteins, including dodecylphosphocholine, the lysolipid 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and small bicelles consisting of dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine and dimyristoyl(More)
The catalytic mechanism of Bacillus subtilis guanine deaminase (bGD), a Zn metalloenzyme, has been investigated by a combination of quantum mechanical calculations using the multilayered ONIOM method and molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast to a previously proposed catalytic mechanism, which requires the bound guanine to assume a rare tautomeric(More)
Hydrogen bonds play critical roles in protein structure, stability, and function. Most hydrogen bonds in proteins are derived from their crystal structures and the use of standard covalent geometry information, because the positions of hydrogen atoms are defined only in a limited number of ultrahigh-resolution crystal structures. On the other hand, NMR(More)
QM/MD simulations are performed to study mutational effects on the glycosylation step of the oligosaccharide hydrolysis catalyzed by Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I. The potential of mean force along the reaction pathway is determined by the umbrella sampling method. A detailed mechanism is developed to illustrate the decrease in activity of the(More)
Effects of superficial gas velocity and top clearance on gas holdup, liquid circulation velocity, mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient are investigated in a new airlift loop photobioreactor (PBR), and empirical models for its rational control and scale-up are proposed. In addition, the impact of top clearance on hydrodynamics, especially on the gas(More)
Site-specific (15)N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors have been derived for the well-ordered backbone amide (15)N nuclei in the B3 domain of protein G (GB3) from residual chemical shift anisotropy (RCSA) measured in six different mutants that retain the native structure but align differently relative to the static magnetic field when dissolved in a(More)