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There is evidence that visual stimuli used to signal drug delivery in self-administration procedures have primary reinforcing properties, and that drugs of abuse enhance the reinforcing properties of such stimuli. Here, we explored the relationships between locomotor activity, responding for a visual stimulus, and self-administration of methamphetamine(More)
The term "sensory reinforcer" has been used to refer to sensory stimuli (e.g. light onset) that are primary reinforcers in order to differentiate them from other more biologically important primary reinforcers (e.g. food and water). Acquisition of snout poke responding for a visual stimulus (5 s light onset) with fixed ratio 1 (FR 1), variable-interval 1(More)
Understanding sensory reinforcement and the effects of stimulant drugs on sensory reinforcers is potentially important for understanding their influence on addiction processes. Experiment 1 explored the reinforcing properties of a visual stimulus and the effects of methamphetamine (METH) on responding maintained by a visual reinforcer (VRF) in male rats.(More)
We recruited a sample of university student gamblers (n = 48) to complete a web-based battery of instruments in a study designed to assess the impact of imagery-based versus photographic cue exposure on acute craving to gamble using the multi-item Gambling Urge Scale (GUS; Raylu and Oei 2004). Although self-reported craving increased following both forms of(More)
Previous research has shown mixed results regarding the effects of cognitively draining tasks, sometimes reporting that the depletion of cognitive resources increases risk taking and other times reporting that depletion leads to increases in risk aversion. Additionally, evidence has been provided demonstrating that both winning and losing can increase(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The current study was designed to assess the impact of wins and losses in simulated blackjack on craving to gamble and to assess the extent to which this craving was associated with actual wagering in an optional gambling task. METHODS Participants were undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university in the United States. They(More)
Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) does not explicitly list craving as a diagnostic criterion for pathological gambling, theories of disordered gambling and research on relapse precipitants suggest that cravings--among other factors--provoke and maintain episodes of gambling. Assessment of craving to gamble(More)
To evaluate several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess college students' self-efficacy to employ 21 cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the amount and/or frequency with which they consume marijuana, we recruited 273 marijuana-using students to rate their confidence that they could employ each of the strategies.(More)
BACKGROUND Research has documented the prevalence of problem gambling among university students, and craving is one factor that may provoke and maintain episodes of gambling. OBJECTIVES We designed this study to assess elements of construct, convergent and criterion validity of the Gambling Urge Scale (GUS) when administered to regularly gambling(More)
Using a Web-based, self-administered questionnaire, we assessed 498 university-student drinkers' self-efficacy to use 31 different behavioral strategies to reduce excessive drinking in each of three different locations (bar, party, own dorm/apartment). Averaging all 31 items within each drinking situation to create a single scale score revealed high(More)