Lisham Ashrafioun

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There is evidence that visual stimuli used to signal drug delivery in self-administration procedures have primary reinforcing properties, and that drugs of abuse enhance the reinforcing properties of such stimuli. Here, we explored the relationships between locomotor activity, responding for a visual stimulus, and self-administration of methamphetamine(More)
We recruited a sample of university student gamblers (n = 48) to complete a web-based battery of instruments in a study designed to assess the impact of imagery-based versus photographic cue exposure on acute craving to gamble using the multi-item Gambling Urge Scale (GUS; Raylu and Oei 2004). Although self-reported craving increased following both forms of(More)
Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) does not explicitly list craving as a diagnostic criterion for pathological gambling, theories of disordered gambling and research on relapse precipitants suggest that cravings--among other factors--provoke and maintain episodes of gambling. Assessment of craving to gamble(More)
Understanding sensory reinforcement and the effects of stimulant drugs on sensory reinforcers is potentially important for understanding their influence on addiction processes. Experiment 1 explored the reinforcing properties of a visual stimulus and the effects of methamphetamine (METH) on responding maintained by a visual reinforcer (VRF) in male rats.(More)
BACKGROUND The abuse of synthetic cannabinoids has emerged as a public health concern over the past few years, yet little data exist characterizing the use of synthetic cannabinoids, particularly among patients seeking substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. In a sample of patients entering residential SUD treatment, we examined the prevalence of and(More)
When prescribing opioids to treat chronic pain, physicians face the dilemma of balancing effective pain management while avoiding iatrogenic opioid addiction. Through mailed surveys, the current study assessed concerns, perceptions, and practices of primary care physicians related to this dilemma. Of the 35 (43%) physicians that replied, 32 (91.4%) reported(More)
Participants (n=150), undergoing inpatient alcohol detoxification, were randomized into 3 groups: treatment as usual (TAU), motivation enhancement therapy (MET), or peer-delivered 12-step facilitation (P-TSF). The main outcome was the initiation of any type of subsequent rehabilitation service (i.e., professional treatment or self-help) within 30 and 90(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The current study was designed to assess the impact of wins and losses in simulated blackjack on craving to gamble and to assess the extent to which this craving was associated with actual wagering in an optional gambling task. METHODS Participants were undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university in the United States. They(More)
BACKGROUND Little research has investigated the correlates of problematic tanning and tanning dependence. OBJECTIVE We sought to identify characteristics associated with problematic tanning and tanning dependence, and to evaluate simultaneously the associations of variables as correlates of problematic tanning and tanning dependence. METHOD To assess(More)
The term "sensory reinforcer" has been used to refer to sensory stimuli (e.g. light onset) that are primary reinforcers in order to differentiate them from other more biologically important primary reinforcers (e.g. food and water). Acquisition of snout poke responding for a visual stimulus (5 s light onset) with fixed ratio 1 (FR 1), variable-interval 1(More)