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Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons recently emerged as key orchestrators of brain states and adaptive behaviors. They are critical for normal stimulation of wakefulness and breathing: Orexin loss causes narcolepsy and compromises vital ventilatory adaptations. However, it is unclear how orexin neurons generate appropriate adjustments in their activity(More)
Glucose-inhibited neurons orchestrate behavior and metabolism according to body energy levels, but how glucose inhibits these cells is unknown. We studied glucose inhibition of orexin/hypocretin neurons, which promote wakefulness (their loss causes narcolepsy) and also regulate metabolism and reward. Here we demonstrate that their inhibition by glucose is(More)
Brain glucose sensing is critical for healthy energy balance, but how appropriate neurocircuits encode both small changes and large background values of glucose levels is unknown. Here, we report several features of hypothalamic orexin neurons, cells essential for normal wakefulness and feeding: (i) A distinct group of orexin neurons exhibits only transient(More)
The firing of hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin neurons is vital for normal sleep-wake transitions, but its molecular determinants are not well understood. It was recently proposed that TASK (TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium) channels [TASK1 (K(2P)3.1) and/or TASK3 (K(2P)9.1)] regulate neuronal firing and may contribute to the specialized responses of(More)
OBJECTIVE Glucose sensing by specialized neurons of the hypothalamus is vital for normal energy balance. In many glucose-activated neurons, glucose metabolism is considered a critical step in glucose sensing, but whether glucose-inhibited neurons follow the same strategy is unclear. Orexin/hypocretin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus are widely projecting(More)
Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin (orx/hcrt) neurons regulate energy balance, wakefulness, and reward; their loss produces narcolepsy and weight gain. Glucose can lower the activity of orx/hcrt cells, but whether other dietary macronutrients have similar effects is unclear. We show that orx/hcrt cells are stimulated by nutritionally relevant mixtures of amino(More)
Hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx) neurons promote arousal and reward seeking, while reduction in their activity has been linked to narcolepsy, obesity and depression. However, the mechanisms influencing the activity of hcrt/orx networks in situ are not fully understood. Here we show that glycine, a neurotransmitter best known for its actions in the(More)
Central orexin/hypocretin neurons promote wakefulness, feeding and reward-seeking, and control blood glucose levels by regulating sympathetic outflow to the periphery. Glucose itself directly suppresses the electrical activity and cytosolic calcium levels of orexin cells. Recent in vitro studies suggested that glucose inhibition of orexin cells may be(More)
Orexin/hypocretin (orx/hcrt) neurons are thought to ensure that reward-seeking is accompanied by alertness, but the underlying circuit organization is unclear. Reports of differential regulation of lateral versus medial orx/hcrt cells produced a hypothesis of 'efferent dichotomy', in which lateral orx/hcrt cells innervate the ventral tegmental area (VTA)(More)
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