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Reviewers The Publications Committee of the American Physiological Society gratefully acknowledges the services of the following reviewers who assisted the Editorial Board in the reviews of manuscripts. (invited only) have specific instructions that you should review if you are submitting to them. The American Physiological Society (APS) Journals seek(More)
Augmentation of glucose transport into skeletal muscle by GLUT4 translocation to the plasma and T-tubule membranes can be mediated independently by insulin and by contraction/exercise. Available data suggest that separable pools of intracellular GLUT4 respond to these two stimuli. To identify and characterize these pools, we fractionated skeletal muscle(More)
Type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients often show elevated plasma ketone body concentrations. Because ketone bodies compete with other energetic substrates and reduce their utilization, they could participate in the development of insulin resistance in the heart. We have examined the effect of elevated levels of ketone bodies on insulin action in primary(More)
Insulin-sensitive tissues (fat and muscle) express a specific isoform of glucose-transporter protein, GLUT4, which normally resides in intracellular vesicular structures and is translocated to the cell surface in response to insulin. Here we provide a biochemical comparison of GLUT4-containing structures from fat and muscle cells. We demonstrate that, in(More)
OBJECTIVE Ghrelin [acylated (AG) and nonacylated (NAG)] has been shown to play a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake and insulin sensitivity. It is presently unclear whether variation in insulin sensitivity is related to AG and NAG levels in obese individuals. To address this issue, we determined whether insulin-sensitive overweight or obese (ISO)(More)
Denervation induces insulin resistance of the glucose transport process in skeletal muscle. To determine whether this is due to alterations in the expression of muscle glucose transporters (GLUT) in different fiber types, we evaluated the amount of GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus at 1, 2, and(More)
BACKGROUND Ghrelin levels are decreased upon food intake, but the impact of specific diet-derived macronutrients on its regulation remains unclear. In addition, because of ghrelin's association with body weight regulation, it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating its levels in obese individuals. OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of specific(More)
The presence of obesity-related metabolic disturbances varies widely among obese individuals. Accordingly, a unique subset of obese individuals has been described in the medical literature, which seems to be protected or more resistant to the development of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. These individuals, now known as 'metabolically(More)
During metabolic stress, such as ischemia or hypoxia, glucose becomes the principal energy source for the heart. It has been shown that increased cardiac glucose uptake during metabolic stress has a protective effect on cell survival and heart function. Despite its physiological importance, only limited data are available on the molecular mechanisms(More)
Tissue-specific changes in GLUT-4 were compared in the following three different rat models by inducing varying degrees of hyperinsulinemia with or without hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia: 1) sucrose feeding (Suc), 2) subcutaneous dexamethasone administration (Dex), and 3) a combination of both treatments (Dex/Suc). Suc raised circulatory insulin and(More)