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To date, many cytoprotective drugs have reached the stage of pivotal phase 3 efficacy trials in acute stroke patients. (Table 1) Unfortunately, throughout the neuroprotective literature, the phrase "failure to demonstrate efficacy" prevails as a common thread among the many neutral or negative trials, despite the largely encouraging results encountered in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Early arterial recanalization (ER) with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can lead to dramatic clinical recovery, whereas some patients do not experience immediate clinical improvement. METHODS Consecutive patients received tPA 0.9 mg/kg IV within 3 hours after symptom onset. All had M1 or M2 middle cerebral artery(More)
Existing experimental evidence suggests that PPARgamma may play a beneficial role in neuroprotection from various brain pathologies. Here we found that focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral/common carotid arteries occlusion (MCA/CCAo) induced up-regulation of PPARgamma messenger RNA in the ischemic hemisphere as early as 6 h after the ischemic(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Early arterial recanalization can lead to dramatic recovery (DR) during intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) therapy. However, it remains unclear whether this clinical recovery is sustained 3 months after stroke. METHODS We studied consecutive patients treated with intravenous tPA (0.9 mg/kg within 3 hours) who had M1 or(More)
BACKGROUND Residual blood flow around thrombus prior to treatment predicts success of coronary thrombolysis. The authors aimed to correlate the presence of residual flow signals in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with completeness of recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). METHODS The authors studied consecutive patients(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In animal models, the combination of caffeine and ethanol (caffeinol) provides robust neuroprotection at blood levels that should be easily and safely achieved in humans. This study was designed to determine the safety and tolerability of ascending doses of this combination in stroke patients. METHODS This Food and Drug(More)
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