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Clavulanic acid is a member of the beta lactam family of antibiotics with little or no intrinsic antibacterial activity of its own; instead, it is used to enhance the activity of antibiotics by blocking bacterial beta-lactamases. Because clavulanic acid by itself is very safe, orally active and shows good brain penetrance, we sought to determine if it had(More)
(1) The availability of short amino acid sequences of the naturally occurring ACTH 1-39 molecule has made it possible to separate the corticotropic characteristics of the parent molecule from its neurotrophic effects. Potent neurotrophic fragments are ACTH 4-10, an analog of ACTH 4-9 (Org 2766), and alpha-MSH (ACTH 1-13), peptide fragments that do not evoke(More)
Peptides that regulate the growth of tissues, whether in a positive or negative manner, are termed growth factors. The melanocortins, neurotrophic sequences that correspond to peptide fragments contained within ACTH-(1-13), beneficially affect neural growth during development and regeneration. Analogues of ACTH-(4-9) (Org 2766) and ACTH-(4-10) (BIM 22015)(More)
Short peptide sequences of ACTH 1-39 (the ACTH 4-9 analog Org 2766, ACTH 4-10 and its analog BIM 22015, and ACTH 1-13 [alpha-MSH]), which do not stimulate the adrenal cortex, have profound effects on the developing and regenerating neuromuscular system, in neonatal and in adult rats. Both development and regeneration are accelerated, as indicated by(More)
Melanocortins, non-corticotropic fragments of adrenocorticotropic hormone, accelerate growth of the developing neuromuscular system and regrowth of damaged neurons, both in the adult and neonatal rat. Morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics are all improved by melanocortins, which, however, vary in potency, with alpha-MSH being(More)
Structural differences between noncorticotropic ACTH peptides result in marked differences in their effects on regenerating nerve and muscle in rats. The ACTH/MSH(4-10) analog BIM 22015 was administered IP in dosages from 0.1 to 40 micrograms/kg/48 h for 5, 7, or 11 days after peroneal nerve crush, and characteristics of extensor digitorum longus (EDL)(More)
The cellular elements and the chemical mediators in secondary injury following TBI or SCI do not act alone. The interconnections between the cellular elements and their secretions, the immune system, and the nervous system are highly regulated in normal physiology, which benefits the organism. When there is traumatic injury to cells in the CNS, the(More)
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