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The work describes a novel approach for sustained photobiological production of H(2) gas via the reversible hydrogenase pathway in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This single-organism, two-stage H(2) production method circumvents the severe O(2) sensitivity of the reversible hydrogenase by temporally separating photosynthetic O(2) evolution and(More)
Through global profiling of genes that were expressed soon after p53 expression, we identified a novel gene termed PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). The protein encoded by PUMA was found to be exclusively mitochondrial and to bind to Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) through a BH3 domain. Exogenous expression of PUMA resulted in an extremely rapid and(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses by a presynaptic enhancement of synaptic transmission during high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Here we have investigated the mechanisms of BDNF action using two lines of BDNF knockout mice. Among other presynaptic impairments, the mutant mice exhibited(More)
One of the most important functions of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is to induce stomatal closure by reducing the turgor of guard cells under water deficit. Under environmental stresses, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), an active oxygen species, is widely generated in many biological systems. Here, using an epidermal strip bioassay and laser-scanning(More)
Avian H9N2 influenza A virus has caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. Here we report that an H9N2 influenza virus infected a 5-year-old child in Hong Kong in 2003. To identify the possible source of the infection, the human isolate and other H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from Hong Kong poultry markets from January to October 2003 were(More)
Nicastrin, a transmembrane glycoprotein, forms high molecular weight complexes with presenilin 1 and presenilin 2. Suppression of nicastrin expression in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos induces a subset of notch/glp-1 phenotypes similar to those induced by simultaneous null mutations in both presenilin homologues of C. elegans (sel-12 and hop-1). Nicastrin(More)
Preparedness for a possible influenza pandemic caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 has become a global priority. The spread of the virus to Europe and continued human infection in Southeast Asia have heightened pandemic concern. It remains unknown from where the pandemic strain may emerge; current attention is directed at Vietnam,(More)
This article summarizes recent advances in the field of algal hydrogen production. Two fundamental approaches are being developed. One involves the temporal separation of the usually incompatible reactions of O(2) and H(2) production in green algae, and the second involves the use of classical genetics to increase the O(2) tolerance of the reversible(More)
VEGF is a secreted mitogen associated with angiogenesis and is also a potent vascular permeability factor. The biological role of VEGF in the ischemic brain remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate whether VEGF enhances cerebral microvascular perfusion and increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in the ischemic brain. Using magnetic(More)