Lisa Veith Stevens

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CONTEXT Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) via breastfeeding reverses gains achieved by perinatal antiretroviral interventions. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of 2 infant feeding strategies for the prevention of postnatal mother-to-child HIV transmission. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS A 2 x 2 factorial(More)
BACKGROUND Infants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women have high mortality, but the immunologic integrity and protection afforded by the breast milk of HIV-infected women is unknown. METHODS We determined morbidity and mortality by 24 months among breast-fed infants of 588 HIV-infected and 137 HIV-uninfected women followed-up in a(More)
BACKGROUND A single dose of nevirapine during labor reduces perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but often leads to viral nevirapine resistance mutations in mothers and infants. METHODS We studied the response to nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatment among women and infants who had previously been randomly assigned to(More)
BACKGROUND Single-dose nevirapine given to women and infants reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission, but nevirapine resistance develops in a large percentage of women. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the maternal nevirapine dose could be eliminated in the setting of zidovudine prophylaxis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A 2 x 2 factorial,(More)
BACKGROUND In this prospective cohort study, we have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation of clinical parameters along with variation in 29 genes (including CYP2C9 and VKORC1) to identify factors determining interindividual variability in warfarin response. METHODS Consecutive patients (n=311) were followed up prospectively for 26 weeks. Several outcomes(More)
BACKGROUND The magnitude of infant antiretroviral (ARV) exposure from breast milk is unknown. METHODS We measured concentrations of nevirapine, lamivudine, and zidovudine in serum and whole breast milk from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women in Botswana receiving ARV treatment and serum from their uninfected, breast-feeding(More)
BACKGROUND The ability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA in breast milk has not been described. METHODS We compared breast-milk HIV-1 RNA and DNA loads of women in Botswana who received HAART (nevirapine, lamivudine, and zidovudine) and women who did not receive HAART. (More)
Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a continuum of psychosocial disorders clinically characterized by social difficulties, impaired communication skills and repetitive behavioral patterns. Despite the prevalence of ASD, the neurobiology of this disorder is poorly understood. However, abnormalities in neuronal morphology, cell number and connectivity(More)
Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis.(More)
The Translational Research Working Group (TRWG) was created as a national initiative to evaluate the current status of the National Cancer Institute's investment in translational research and envision its future in an inclusive, representative, and transparent manner. To clarify the challenges facing translational research and facilitate its deliberations,(More)