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The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is thought to mediate social behaviors and neuroendocrine changes elicited by pheromonal cues. The molecular mechanisms underlying the sensory response to pheromones and the behavioral repertoire induced through the VNO are not fully characterized. Using the tools of mouse genetics and multielectrode recording, we(More)
Mice use pheromones, compounds emitted and detected by members of the same species, as cues to regulate social behaviours such as pup suckling, aggression and mating. Neurons that detect pheromones are thought to reside in at least two separate organs within the nasal cavity: the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Each(More)
Rac and Cdc42 regulate a variety of responses in mammalian cells including formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, activation of the JNK MAP kinase cascade, and induction of G1 cell cycle progression. Rac is also one of the downstream targets required for Ras-induced malignant transformation. Rac and Cdc42 containing a Y40C effector site substitution no(More)
The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the mouse has two neuronal compartments expressing distinct families of pheromone receptors, the V1Rs and the V2Rs. We report here that two families of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecules, the M10 and the M1 families, show restricted expression in V2R-expressing neurons. Our data suggest that neurons(More)
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and its ErbB2/B4 receptors are encoded by candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, yet the essential functions of NRG1 signaling in the CNS are still unclear. Using CRE/LOX technology, we have inactivated ErbB2/B4-mediated NRG1 signaling specifically in the CNS. In contrast to expectations, cell layers in the cerebral cortex,(More)
The mechanisms by which cells rapidly polarize in the direction of external signals are not understood. Helper T cells, when contacted by an antigen-presenting cell, polarize their cytoskeletons toward the antigen-presenting cell within minutes. Here we show that, in T cells, the mammalian Ras-related GTPase CDC42 (the homologue of yeast CDC42, a protein(More)
BACKGROUND The Rho-related GTP-binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac1 have been shown to regulate signaling pathways involved in cytoskeletal reorganization and stress-responsive JNK (Jun N-terminal kinase) activation. However, to date, the GTPase targets that mediate these effects have not been identified. PAK defines a growing family of mammalian kinases that(More)
Potential predators emit uncharacterized chemosignals that warn receiving species of danger. Neurons that sense these stimuli remain unknown. Here we show that detection and processing of fear-evoking odors emitted from cat, rat, and snake require the function of sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ. To investigate the molecular nature of the sensory(More)
Species-specific chemosignals, pheromones, regulate social behaviors such as aggression, mating, pup-suckling, territory establishment, and dominance. The identity of these cues remains mostly undetermined and few mammalian pheromones have been identified. Genetically-encoded pheromones are expected to exhibit several different mechanisms for coding 1)(More)
BACKGROUND Rodents use olfactory cues for species-specific behaviors. For example, mice emit odors to attract mates of the same species, but not competitors of closely related species. This implies rapid evolution of olfactory signaling, although odors and chemosensory receptors involved are unknown. RESULTS Here, we identify a mouse chemosignal,(More)