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Angiotensin II (angII) is known to promote atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. To determine whether angII stimulates proteoglycan production and LDL retention, LDL receptor-deficient mice were infused with angII (1,000 ng/kg/min) or saline via osmotic minipumps. To control for the hypertensive effect of angII, a(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Retention of atherogenic lipoproteins in the artery wall by proteoglycans is a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Thiazolidinediones have been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in mouse models. The aim of this study was to determine whether thiazolidinediones modify vascular proteoglycan synthesis in a way that decreases LDL(More)
A novel protein kinase, the Esk kinase, has been isolated from an embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line by using an expression cloning strategy. Sequence analysis of two independent cDNA clones (2.97 and 2.85 kb) suggested the presence of two Esk isoforms in EC cells. The esk-1 cDNA sequence predicted an 857-amino-acid protein kinase with a putative(More)
Retention of LDL in the artery intima is mediated by extracellular matrix proteoglycans and plays an important role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Compared with quiescent cells, proliferating smooth muscle cells secrete proteoglycans with elongated glycosaminoglycan side chains, which have an increased binding affinity to LDL. Because(More)
The "response-to-retention" hypothesis of atherogenesis states that atherogenic lipoproteins, such as low density lipoprotein (LDL), are retained in vessels by proteoglycans and undergo proatherosclerotic modifications. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has been identified in atherosclerotic vessels and has been shown to stimulate the synthesis of(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory markers associated with elevated cardiovascular risk are increased by cholesterol feeding in animal models. However, whether dietary cholesterol increases inflammatory marker levels in humans is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lipoprotein levels were compared in 201 healthy(More)
Septic shock results from an uncontrolled inflammatory response, mediated primarily by LPS. Cholesterol transport plays an important role in the host response to LPS, as LPS is neutralized by lipoproteins and adrenal cholesterol uptake is required for antiinflammatory glucocorticoid synthesis. In this study, we show that scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI), an(More)
Diabetes in humans accelerates cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. The relative contributions of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia to atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes are not clear, largely because there is a lack of suitable animal models. We therefore have developed a transgenic mouse model that closely mimics atherosclerosis in humans(More)
In a screen of mouse erythroleukemia cDNA expression libraries with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, designed to isolate tyrosine kinase coding sequences, we identified several cDNAs encoding proteins identical or very similar to known protein-tyrosine kinases. However, two frequently isolated cDNAs, clk and nek, encode proteins which are most closely(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive action of serum amyloid A (SAA), group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA), and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) on HDL remodeling and cholesterol efflux during the acute phase (AP) response elicited in humans after cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS Plasma was(More)