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A novel protein kinase, the Esk kinase, has been isolated from an embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line by using an expression cloning strategy. Sequence analysis of two independent cDNA clones (2.97 and 2.85 kb) suggested the presence of two Esk isoforms in EC cells. The esk-1 cDNA sequence predicted an 857-amino-acid protein kinase with a putative(More)
Septic shock results from an uncontrolled inflammatory response, mediated primarily by LPS. Cholesterol transport plays an important role in the host response to LPS, as LPS is neutralized by lipoproteins and adrenal cholesterol uptake is required for antiinflammatory glucocorticoid synthesis. In this study, we show that scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI), an(More)
Angiotensin II (angII) is known to promote atherosclerosis; however, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. To determine whether angII stimulates proteoglycan production and LDL retention, LDL receptor-deficient mice were infused with angII (1,000 ng/kg/min) or saline via osmotic minipumps. To control for the hypertensive effect of angII, a(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Retention of atherogenic lipoproteins in the artery wall by proteoglycans is a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Thiazolidinediones have been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in mouse models. The aim of this study was to determine whether thiazolidinediones modify vascular proteoglycan synthesis in a way that decreases LDL(More)
OBJECTIVE The phenotypic expression of partial lipodystrophy is present in two familial syndromes: familial partial lipodystrophy type 1 (FPLD1), with fat loss from the extremities, and central obesity and FPLD type 2, with fat loss from the extremities, abdomen, and thorax. The latter disorder is associated with mutations in the LMNA gene. FPLD1 is thought(More)
The epidemic of obesity sweeping developed nations is accompanied by an increase in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, delineating the mechanism of obesity-accelerated atherosclerosis has been hampered by a paucity of animal models. Similar to(More)
Retention of LDL in the artery intima is mediated by extracellular matrix proteoglycans and plays an important role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Compared with quiescent cells, proliferating smooth muscle cells secrete proteoglycans with elongated glycosaminoglycan side chains, which have an increased binding affinity to LDL. Because(More)
The "response-to-retention" hypothesis of atherogenesis states that atherogenic lipoproteins, such as low density lipoprotein (LDL), are retained in vessels by proteoglycans and undergo proatherosclerotic modifications. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has been identified in atherosclerotic vessels and has been shown to stimulate the synthesis of(More)
Diabetes in humans accelerates cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. The relative contributions of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia to atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes are not clear, largely because there is a lack of suitable animal models. We therefore have developed a transgenic mouse model that closely mimics atherosclerosis in humans(More)
Inflammatory markers serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are predictive of cardiac disease and are proposed to play causal roles in the development of atherosclerosis, in which the retention of lipoproteins by vascular wall proteoglycans is critical. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SAA and/or CRP alters vascular(More)