Lisa M Toole

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Individuals with developmental disabilities are at high risk for developing mental health problems. The prevalence of psychopathology is approximately 4 times higher than that found in the general population. Yet there is a tendency to underdiagnose psychiatric disorders in the developmentally delayed population because of diagnostic overshadowing, the lack(More)
Behavior-reduction interventions typically employ dense schedules of alternative reinforcement in conjunction with operant extinction for problem behavior. After problem behavior is reduced in the initial treatment stages, schedule thinning is routinely conducted to make the intervention more practical in natural environments. In the current investigation,(More)
Recent studies have used pretreatment analyses, termed competing stimulus assessments, to identify items that most effectively displace the aberrant behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. In most studies, there appeared to have been no systematic basis for selecting the sampling period (ranging from 30 s to 10 min) in which items were(More)
Charlop, Burgio, Iwata, and Ivancic [J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 21 (1988) 89] demonstrated that varied punishment procedures produced greater or more consistent reductions of problem behavior than a constant punishment procedure. More recently, Fisher and colleagues [Res. Dev. Disabil. 15 (1994) 133; J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 27 (1994) 447] developed a systematic(More)
This study examined whether gambling behavior under conditions of diminishing returns differed between participants with histories of contingent (CD group) and noncontingent (NCD group) token delivery. In Phase 1, CD participants accrued tokens by correctly completing a discrimination task; for NCD participants, token accrual was yoked to token delivery of(More)
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