Lisa M. Spain

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These studies address the role of PU.1 in T cell development through the analysis of PU.1-/- mice. We show that the majority of PU.1-/- thymocytes are blocked in differentiation prior to T cell commitment, and contain a population of thymocyte progenitors with the cell surface phenotype of CD44+, HSAbright, c-kitint, Thy-1-, CD25-, Sca-1-, CD4-, and CD8-.(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes results from an immunemediated destruction of beta-cells, likely to be mediated by T lymphocytes, but the sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of validity of existing assays for islet autoreactive T-cells are not well established. Such assays are vital for monitoring responses to interventions that may modulate disease(More)
OBJECTIVE In patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes, we investigated whether improved beta-cell function can be achieved by combining intensive insulin therapy with agents that may 1) promote beta-cell growth and/or limit beta-cell apoptosis and 2) weaken the anti-beta-cell autoimmunity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS For this study, 20 individuals(More)
Prostaglandins (PGs) are lipid-derived mediators of rapid and localized cellular responses. Given the role of PG in supporting thymic T cell development, we investigated the expression of the PG synthases, also known as cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2, in the biosynthesis of PGs in thymic stromal cell lines. The predominant isozyme expressed in cortical(More)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is believed to be due to the autoimmune destruction of β-cells by T lymphocytes, but a single course of rituximab, a monoclonal anti-CD20 B lymphocyte Ab, can attenuate C-peptide loss over the first year of disease. The effects of B cell depletion on disease-associated T cell responses have not been studied. We compare changes in(More)
We report the results of an independent laboratory's tests of novel agents to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, BioBreeding diabetes prone (BBDP) rat, and multiple autoimmune disease prone (MAD) rat models. Methods were developed to better mimic human clinical trials, including: prescreening, randomization,(More)
One of the major mechanisms for establishing self-tolerance is the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells during their development in the thymus. Using a TCR transgenic mouse model, we have established a quantitative ex vivo assay for examining the sensitivity and specificity of negative selection. Thymic organ cultures established from mice of varying(More)
We previously reported that continuous 24-month costimulation blockade by abatacept significantly slows the decline of β-cell function after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. In a mechanistic extension of that study, we evaluated peripheral blood immune cell subsets (CD4, CD8-naive, memory and activated subsets, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells,(More)
During aging in mice and humans, a gradual decline in thymus integrity and function occurs (thymic involution). To determine whether T cell reactivity or development affects thymic involution, we compared the thymic phenotype in old (12 months) and young (2 months) mice transgenic for rearranged alphabeta or beta 2B4 T cell receptor (TCR) genes, mice made(More)
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