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The ets-family transcription factor PU.1 is required for the proper development of both myeloid and lymphoid progenitors. We used PU. 1-deficient animals to examine the role of PU.1 during dendritic cell development. PU.1(-/-)animals produce lymphoid-derived dendritic cells (DC): low-density class II major histocompatibility complex [MHC-II(+)] CD11c(+)(More)
Natural killer (NK) inhibitory receptors, which recognize major histocompatability complex (MHC) proteins in humans, are known as killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) and are encoded by a multi-gene immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. In a screen for genes differentially expressed in the mouse thymus, we discovered the first close rodent homologue of the NK(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes results from an immunemediated destruction of beta-cells, likely to be mediated by T lymphocytes, but the sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of validity of existing assays for islet autoreactive T-cells are not well established. Such assays are vital for monitoring responses to interventions that may modulate disease(More)
Prostaglandins (PGs) are lipid-derived mediators of rapid and localized cellular responses. Given the role of PG in supporting thymic T cell development, we investigated the expression of the PG synthases, also known as cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2, in the biosynthesis of PGs in thymic stromal cell lines. The predominant isozyme expressed in cortical(More)
The specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire for foreign peptide bound to self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is determined in large part by positive and negative selection processes in the thymus, yet the mechanisms of these selection events remain unknown. Using in vitro organ culture of thymi isolated from mice transgenic for(More)
These studies address the role of PU.1 in T cell development through the analysis of PU.1-/- mice. We show that the majority of PU.1-/- thymocytes are blocked in differentiation prior to T cell commitment, and contain a population of thymocyte progenitors with the cell surface phenotype of CD44+, HSAbright, c-kitint, Thy-1-, CD25-, Sca-1-, CD4-, and CD8-.(More)
Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet is an international consortium of clinical research centers aimed at the prevention or delay of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The fundamental goal of TrialNet is to counter the T1D disease process by immune modulation and/or enhancement of beta cell proliferation and regeneration. To achieve this goal, TrialNet researchers are working to(More)
Prostaglandin G and H synthases, or cyclooxygenases (COXs), catalyze the formation of prostaglandins (PGs). Whereas COX-1 is diffusely expressed in lymphoid cells in embryonic day 15.5 thymus, COX-2 expression is sparse, apparently limited to stromal cells. By contrast, COX-2 is predominant in a subset of medullary stromal cells in three- to five-week-old(More)
We previously reported that continuous 24-month costimulation blockade by abatacept significantly slows the decline of β-cell function after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. In a mechanistic extension of that study, we evaluated peripheral blood immune cell subsets (CD4, CD8-naive, memory and activated subsets, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells,(More)
OBJECTIVE In patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes, we investigated whether improved beta-cell function can be achieved by combining intensive insulin therapy with agents that may 1) promote beta-cell growth and/or limit beta-cell apoptosis and 2) weaken the anti-beta-cell autoimmunity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS For this study, 20 individuals(More)