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This article provides a comprehensive review of the research on smoking and body weight. The relationships between smoking and body weight are evaluated in 70 cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. The mechanisms responsible for differences in body weight are discussed, the weight-related issues that promote smoking behavior are reviewed, methods(More)
Dietary, activity, and body weight differences in high- and low-restrained eaters and the independent impact of dietary restraint on body weight change were evaluated in 287 adults (141 men, 146 women) followed over a 1-year period. Analyses of measures of energy intake, physical activity, and dietary restraint indicated that high-restrained eaters did not(More)
The effects of nicotine chewing gum and cigarettes on resting energy expenditure (REE) were evaluated. Twenty smoking women participated in nicotine gum and smoking administration, after which their REEs were measured. Results indicate an acute increase in REE for both nicotine gum and cigarettes. Metabolic rates for nicotine gum slowly returned to(More)
Examined demographic, environmental, and parent-child interactional correlates of physical activity in a group of 222 preschoolers. Activity levels were assessed with a system that quantified directly observed physical activity in the natural environment. Using regression-modeling procedures, results revealed a significant relationship between (a) child's(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of changes in dietary restraint (chronic dieting) on changes in body weight over time. Subjects were 305 (98 male, 207 female) adults. At pretest, subjects completed a restrained eating questionnaire (Herman & Polivy, 1980), as well as reporting height, weight, gender, race, and age. Subjects were(More)
This study examined whether preschool children differed on measures of psychosocial functioning both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One hundred and thirty-two children who varied in levels of body fat participated in the study along with their natural parents. Results indicated that the children did not differ in levels of self-esteem and family(More)
BACKGROUND This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS). METHODS Two hundred ten girls participated in the GEMS(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate carefully smoking-related knowledge and beliefs and their relationships to smoking status in a large, heterogeneous sample of smokers and nonsmokers in two settings: (a) a large, biracial southern city and (b) a small midwestern community. Participants were 611 (198 male, 413 female) adult respondents to a(More)
The authors sought to assess the reliability and validity of two motion activity sensors in the prediction of observed physical activity levels in adults and children by means of two studies at North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota. In study 1, 50 adults were observed in fall 1984 for one hour of recreational activity while they(More)
The relationship between smoking status and body mass index (weight/height) was evaluated, controlling for demographics, dietary intake, and physical activity. Subjects were 10,778 adult respondents from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). Results indicate that never smokers and long-term quitters had similar relative(More)