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We have discovered a ubiquitin (Ub)-specific cysteine protease encoded within the N-terminal approximately 500 residues of the UL36 gene product, the largest (3164 aa) tegument protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Enzymatic activity of this fragment, UL36USP, is detectable only after cleavage of UL36USP from full-length UL36 and occurs late during(More)
Long-term in vivo expression of a broad and potent entry inhibitor could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine for HIV-1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can stably express HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, even the best bNAbs neutralize 10-50% of HIV-1 isolates inefficiently (80% inhibitory concentration (IC80) > 5 μg(More)
We show here that the high-molecular-weight protein (HMWP or pUL48; 253 kDa) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a functionally competent deubiquitinating protease (DUB). By using a suicide substrate probe specific for ubiquitin-binding cysteine proteases (DUB probe) to screen lysates of HCMV-infected cells, we found just one infected-cell-specific DUB.(More)
Proteins associated with the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) viral particle were identified by a combined approach of proteomic and genomic methods. Purified MCMV virions were dissociated by complete denaturation and subjected to either separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion or treated directly by(More)
The herpesvirus ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) family, whose founding member was discovered as a protease domain embedded in the large tegument protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), is conserved across all members of the Herpesviridae. Whether this conservation is indicative of an essential function of the enzyme in vivo has not yet been(More)
Elucidation of maternal immune correlates of protection against congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is necessary to inform future vaccine design. Here, we present a novel rhesus macaque model of placental rhesus CMV (rhCMV) transmission and use it to dissect determinants of protection against congenital transmission following primary maternal rhCMV infection.(More)
The largest tegument protein of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), UL36, contains a novel deubiquitinating activity embedded in it. All members of the Herpesviridae contain a homologue of HSV-1 UL36, the N-terminal segments of which show perfect conservation of those residues implicated in catalysis. For murine cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus, chosen as(More)
All members of the herpesviridae contain within their large tegument protein a cysteine protease module that displays deubiquitinating activity. We report the crystal structure of the cysteine protease domain of murine cytomegalovirus M48 (M48(USP)) in a complex with a ubiquitin (Ub)-based suicide substrate. M48(USP) adopts a papain-like fold, with the(More)
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) contains a ubiquitin (Ub)-specific cysteine protease (USP) domain embedded within the large tegument protein ORF64, as do all other herpesviruses. The biological role of this protease is still unclear, but for the alphaherpesvirus Marek's disease virus, its USP is involved in T-cell lymphoma formation. We here study the(More)
The combination of loss of habitat, human population encroachment, and increased demand of select nonhuman primates for biomedical research has significantly affected populations. There remains a need for knowledge and expertise in understanding background findings as related to the age, source, strain, and disease status of nonhuman primates. In(More)